Transistor Tester for Arduino

Ivan_Kornege
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Зарегистрирован: 23.06.2016

Схема, если 5110 питается от 3,3V

Ivan_Kornege
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Зарегистрирован: 23.06.2016

arduinec пишет:

Ivan_Kornege пишет:

arduinec, чирканул схему для промини с дисплеем 5110.

Посмотри пож правильно исходя из твоего описания буквами ?

По внешним элементам вроде всё верно. Выводы для дисплея 5100 специально выбрал такие, чтобы удобнее подключались. Ещё пин 2 остаётся свободным.

На Arduino Nano удалил только резистор диода на 13 пине. Конденасатор на AREF (не смотрел есть ли он там) не трогал. В схеме Pighixxx ставится дополнительный конденсатор - вот его я и не стал припаивать.

Короч синюю плату запалил, питание воткнул переменку 9вольт и куку... Остались чёрные ... воткнул.

arduinec, а что это за глюк с шрифтом? Библиотека твоя залита с яндекса.

Ivan_Kornege
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Зарегистрирован: 23.06.2016

Фотосессия

Ivan_Kornege
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Зарегистрирован: 23.06.2016

dgeka
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Зарегистрирован: 05.07.2016

А можно тыльную сторону макетки?

 

arduinec
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Зарегистрирован: 01.09.2015

Ivan_Kornege пишет:

arduinec, а что это за глюк с шрифтом?

Глюк связан с тем, что последняя буква первой строки переходит на следующую строку и накладывается на первую букву второй строки.

Чтобы это исправить, можно убрать пробелы в следующей строке:

const unsigned char TestFailed1[] MEM_TEXT = "No, unknown, or";

то есть сделать так:

const unsigned char TestFailed1[] MEM_TEXT = "No,unknown,or";

 

Ivan_Kornege
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Зарегистрирован: 23.06.2016

dgeka пишет:
А можно тыльную сторону макетки?

есть разводка в Layout, как сюда прицепить файл что то не нашел ...

Ivan_Kornege
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Зарегистрирован: 23.06.2016

arduinec пишет:

Ivan_Kornege пишет:

arduinec, а что это за глюк с шрифтом?

Глюк связан с тем, что последняя буква первой строки переходит на следующую строку и накладывается на первую букву второй строки.

Чтобы это исправить, можно убрать пробелы в следующей строке:

const unsigned char TestFailed1[] MEM_TEXT = "No, unknown, or";

то есть сделать так:

const unsigned char TestFailed1[] MEM_TEXT = "No,unknown,or";

теперь всЁ океюшки )))

/*                      \\\|///
                        \\  - -  //
                         (  @ @  )
  /--------------------oOOo-(_)-oOOo---------------------\
  |                                                      |
  |                                                      |
  |    Transistor Tester for Arduino (version 1.08a)     |
  |                                                      |
  |  based on code: Karl-Heinz Kubbeler (version 1.08k)  |
  |                                                      |
  |                                                      |
  |                            Oooo                      |
  \--------------------oooO----(   )---------------------/
    	               (   )    ) /
                        \ (    (_/
                         \_)                            */

 /*                        
Модификация arduinec (Втр, 14/06/2016 - 05:42) http://arduino.ru/forum/proekty/transistor-tester-arduino#comment-200453
Добавил в скетч поддержку дисплея Nokia 5110 в текстовом режиме, номер версии при этом поменялся на 1.08.002.
https://yadi.sk/d/u-jCgnZJsTpgv

Для выбора дисплея теперь нужно лишь раскомментировать (остальные закомментировать) требуемые #define:
//#define LCD1602
//#define LCD_I2C
//#define NOK5110
***********
Проверяем ножки дисплея 5110

  Adafruit_PCD8544 lcd = Adafruit_PCD8544(3, 4, 5, 6, 7);  // CLK,DIN,DC,CE,RST

У меня к этим подключен
**************
Для дисплея LCD 1602 раскомментируется #define LCD1602.
Для дисплея LCD 1602 с I2C-интерфейсом комментарий снимается с двух строк: #define LCD1602 и #define LCD_I2C.
Для дисплея Nokia 5110 комментарий убирается с #define NOK5110.
Вывод в Serial port работает, даже если закомментированы все строчки с дисплеями.

Для отображения символов диода, конденсатора, резистора на дисплее Nokia 5110 в библиотеке Adafruit-GFX нужно заменить шрифт. 
Как это сделать описано здесь: http://arduino.ru/forum/programmirovanie/rusifikatsiya-biblioteki-adafru... (новый шрифт в посте 80):
Для развития проекта Transistor Tester (http://arduino.ru/forum/proekty/transistor-tester-arduino) немного модифицировал шрифт. Теперь символы с кодами 0x91 и 0x92 используются для отображения диодов, 0x93 - для конденсатора, 0x94 и 0x95 - для резистора. Код 0x90 содержит символ Омега, символ Микро с кодом 0xB5 уже был в шрифте.

Пример приводится для дисплея Nokia 5110:
https://yadi.sk/d/juZ_mZbfsTpez

Инструкция по замене шрифта остаётся прежней.
*/


#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include <avr/sleep.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <avr/eeprom.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include <avr/wdt.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <avr/power.h>

//#define LCD1602
//#define LCD_I2C
#define NOK5110

#ifdef LCD1602
  #ifdef LCD_I2C
    #include <Wire.h> 
    #include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>
  #else
    #include <LiquidCrystal.h>
  #endif
#endif

#ifdef NOK5110
  #include <SPI.h>
  #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
  #include <Adafruit_PCD8544.h>
#endif


// ******** config options for your Semiconductor tester

// Every changing of this Makefile will result in new compiling the whole
// programs, if you call make or make upload.

#define MCU atmega328p
#define F_CPU 16000000UL

// Select your language:
// Available languages are: LANG_ENGLISH, LANG_GERMAN, LANG_POLISH, LANG_CZECH, LANG_SLOVAK, LANG_SLOVENE,
//                          LANG_DUTCH, LANG_BRASIL, LANG_RUSSIAN, LANG_UKRAINIAN
#define LANG_ENGLISH

// The LCD_CYRILLIC option is necessary, if you have a display with cyrillic characterset.
// This lcd-display don't have a character for Ohm and for u (micro).
// Russian language requires a LCD controller with russian characterset and option LCD_CYRILLIC!
#define LCD_CYRILLIC

// The LCD_DOGM option must be set for support of the DOG-M type of LCD modules with ST7036 controller.
// For this LCD type the contrast must be set with software command.
//#define LCD_DOGM

// Option STRIP_GRID_BOARD selects different board-layout, do not set for standard board!
// The connection of LCD is totally different for both versions.
//#define STRIP_GRID_BOARD

// The WITH_SELFTEST option enables selftest function (only for mega168 or mega328).
//#define WITH_SELFTEST

// AUTO_CAL will enable the autocalibration of zero offset of capacity measurement and
// also the port output resistance values will be find out in SELFTEST section.
// With a external capacitor a additionally correction of reference voltage is figured out for 
// low capacity measurement and also for the AUTOSCALE_ADC measurement.
// The AUTO_CAL option is only selectable for mega168 and mega328.
//#define AUTO_CAL

// FREQUENCY_50HZ enables a 50 Hz frequency generator for up to one minute at the end of selftests.
//#define FREQUENCY_50HZ

// The WITH_AUTO_REF option enables reading of internal REF-voltage to get factors for the Capacity measuring.
#define WITH_AUTO_REF
// REF_C_KORR corrects the reference Voltage for capacity measurement (<40uF) and has mV units.
// Greater values gives lower capacity results.
#define REF_C_KORR 12
// REF_L_KORR corrects the reference Voltage for inductance measurement and has mV units.
#define REF_L_KORR 40
// C_H_KORR defines a correction of 0.1% units for big capacitor measurement.
// Positive values will reduce measurement results.
#define C_H_KORR 0

// The WITH_UART option enables the software UART (TTL level output at Pin PC3, 26).
// If the option is deselected, PC3 can be used as external voltage input with a
// 10:1 resistor divider.
//#define WITH_UART

// The CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL  defines the empty voltage level for capacitors in mV.
// Choose a higher value, if your Tester reports "Cell!" by unloading capacitors.
#define CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL 4

// The AUTOSCALE_ADC option enables the autoscale ADC (ADC use VCC and Bandgap Ref).
#define AUTOSCALE_ADC
#define REF_R_KORR 3

// The ESR_ZERO value define the zero value of ESR measurement (units = 0.01 Ohm).
//#define ESR_ZERO 29
#define ESR_ZERO 20

// NO_AREF_CAP tells your Software, that you have no Capacitor installed at pin AREF (21).
// This enables a shorter wait-time for AUTOSCALE_ADC function.
// A capacitor with 1nF can be used with the option NO_AREF_CAP set.
#define NO_AREF_CAP

// The OP_MHZ option tells the software the Operating Frequency of your ATmega.
// OP_MHZ 16

// Restart from sleep mode will be delayed for 16384 clock tics with crystal mode.
// Operation with the internal RC-Generator or external clock will delay the restart by only 6 clock tics.
// You must specify this with "#define RESTART_DELAY_TICS=6", if you don't use the crystal mode.
//#define RESTART_DELAY_TICS 6

// The USE_EEPROM option specify where you wish to locate fix text and tables.
// If USE_EEPROM is unset, program memory (flash) is taken for fix text and tables.
//#define USE_EEPROM

// Setting EBC_STYPE will select the old style to present the order of Transistor connection (EBC=...).
// Omitting the option will select the 123=... style.  Every point is replaced by a character identifying 
// type of connected transistor pin (B=Base, E=Emitter, C=Collector, G=Gate, S=Source, D=Drain).
// If you select EBC_STYLE=321 , the style will be 321=... , the inverted order to the 123=... style.
//#define EBC_STYLE
//#define EBC_STYLE 321

// Setting of NO_NANO avoids the use of n as prefix for Farad (nF), the mikro prefix is used insted (uF).
//#define NO_NANO

// The PULLUP_DISABLE option disable the pull-up Resistors of IO-Ports.
// To use this option a external pull-up Resistor (10k to 30k)
// from Pin 13 to VCC must be installed!
#define PULLUP_DISABLE

// The ANZ_MESS option specifies, how often an ADC value is read and accumulated.
// Possible values of ANZ_MESS are 5 to 200.
#define ANZ_MESS 25

// The POWER_OFF option enables the power off function, otherwise loop measurements infinitely
// until power is disconnected with a ON/OFF switch (#define POWER_OFF).
// If you have the tester without the power off transistors, you can deselect POWER_OFF .
// If you have NOT selected the POWER_OFF option with the transistors installed,
// you can stop measuring by holding the key several seconds after a result is
// displayed. After releasing the key, the tester will be shut off by timeout.
// Otherwise you can also specify, after how many measurements without found part
// the tester will shut down (#define POWER_OFF=5).
// The tester will also shut down with found part,
// but successfull measurements are allowed double of the specified number.
// You can specify up to 255 empty measurements (#define POWER_OFF=255).
//#define POWER_OFF 5
//#define POWER_OFF

// Option BAT_CHECK enables the Battery Voltage Check, otherwise the SW Version is displayed instead of Bat.
// BAT_CHECK should be set for battery powered tester version.
//#define BAT_CHECK

// The BAT_OUT option enables Battery Voltage Output on LCD (if BAT_CHECK is selected).
// If your 9V supply has a diode installed, use the BAT_OUT=600 form to specify the
// threshold voltage of your diode to adjust the output value.
// This threshold level is added to LCD-output and does not affect the voltage checking levels.
//#define BAT_OUT 150

// To adjust the warning-level and poor-level of battery check to the capability of a
// low drop voltage regulator, you can specify the Option BAT_POOR=5400 .
// The unit for this option value is 1mV , 5400 means a poor level of 5.4V.
// The warning level is 0.8V higher than the specified poor level (>5.3V).
// The warning level is 0.4V higher than the specified poor level (>2.9V, <=5.3V).
// The warning level is 0.2V higher than the specified poor level (>1.3V, <=2.9V).
// The warning level is 0.1V higher than the specified poor level (<=1.3V).
// Setting the poor level to low values is not recommended for rechargeable Batteries,
// because this increase the danger for deep discharge!!
#define BAT_POOR 6400

// The sleep mode of the ATmega168 or ATmega328 is normally used by the software to save current.
// You can inhibit this with the option INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE .
//#define INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE

// ******** end of selectable options

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// ########  Configuration

#ifndef ADC_PORT
//#define DebugOut 3		// if set, output of voltages of resistor measurements in row 2,3,4
//#define DebugOut 4		// if set, output of voltages of Diode measurement in row 3+4
//#define DebugOut 5		// if set, output of Transistor checks in row 2+3
//#define DebugOut 10		// if set, output of capacity measurements (ReadCapacity) in row 3+4 

/*
  Port, that is directly connected to the probes.
  This Port must have an ADC-Input  (ATmega8:  PORTC).
  The lower pins of this Port must be used for measurements.
  Please don't change the definitions of TP1, TP2 and TP3!
  The TPREF pin can be connected with a 2.5V precision voltage reference
  The TPext can be used with a 10:1 resistor divider as external voltage probe up to 50V
*/

#define ADC_PORT PORTC
#define ADC_DDR DDRC
#define ADC_PIN PINC
#define TP1 0
#define TP2 1
#define TP3 2
#define TPext 3
// Port pin for 2.5V precision reference used for VCC check (optional)
#define TPREF 4
// Port pin for Battery voltage measuring
#define TPBAT 5

/*
  exact values of used resistors (Ohm).
  The standard value for R_L is 680 Ohm, for R_H 470kOhm.

  To calibrate your tester the resistor-values can be adjusted:
*/
#define R_L_VAL 6800          // standard value 680 Ohm, multiplied by 10 for 0.1 Ohm resolution
//#define R_L_VAL 6690        // this will be define a 669 Ohm
#define R_H_VAL 47000         // standard value 470000 Ohm, multiplied by 10, divided by 100 
//#define R_H_VAL 47900       // this will be define a 479000 Ohm, divided by 100 

#define R_DDR DDRB
#define R_PORT PORTB

/*
  Port for the Test resistors
  The Resistors must be connected to the lower 6 Pins of the Port in following sequence:
  RLx = 680R-resistor for Test-Pin x
  RHx = 470k-resistor for Test-Pin x

  RL1 an Pin 0
  RH1 an Pin 1
  RL2 an Pin 2
  RH2 an Pin 3
  RL3 an Pin 4
  RH3 an Pin 5
*/

#define ON_DDR DDRD
#define ON_PORT PORTD
#define ON_PIN_REG PIND
#define ON_PIN 18               // Pin, must be switched to high to switch power on

#ifdef STRIP_GRID_BOARD
// Strip Grid board version
  #define RST_PIN 0             // Pin, is switched to low, if push button is pressed
#else
// normal layout version
  #define RST_PIN 17            // Pin, is switched to low, if push button is pressed
#endif


// Port(s) / Pins for LCD

#ifdef STRIP_GRID_BOARD
  // special Layout for strip grid board
  #define HW_LCD_EN_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_EN_PIN          5

  #define HW_LCD_RS_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_RS_PIN          7

  #define HW_LCD_B4_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B4_PIN          4
  #define HW_LCD_B5_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B5_PIN          3
  #define HW_LCD_B6_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B6_PIN          2
  #define HW_LCD_B7_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B7_PIN          1
#else
  // normal Layout
  #define HW_LCD_EN_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_EN_PIN          6

  #define HW_LCD_RS_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_RS_PIN          7

  #define HW_LCD_B4_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B4_PIN          5
  #define HW_LCD_B5_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B5_PIN          4
  #define HW_LCD_B6_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B6_PIN          3
  #define HW_LCD_B7_PORT         PORTD
  #define HW_LCD_B7_PIN          2
#endif


// U_VCC defines the VCC Voltage of the ATmega in mV units

#define U_VCC 5000
// integer factors are used to change the ADC-value to mV resolution in ReadADC !

// With the option NO_CAP_HOLD_TIME you specify, that capacitor loaded with 680 Ohm resistor will not
// be tested to hold the voltage same time as load time.
// Otherwise (without this option) the voltage drop during load time is compensated to avoid displaying
// too much capacity for capacitors with internal parallel resistance.
// #define NO_CAP_HOLD_TIME


// U_SCALE can be set to 4 for better resolution of ReadADC function for resistor measurement
#define U_SCALE 4

// R_ANZ_MESS can be set to a higher number of measurements (up to 200) for resistor measurement
#define R_ANZ_MESS 190

// Watchdog
//#define WDT_enabled
/*
  If you remove the "#define WDT_enabled" , the Watchdog will not be activated.
  This is only for Test or debugging usefull.
  For normal operation please activate the Watchdog !
*/

// ########  End of configuration 


#if R_ANZ_MESS < ANZ_MESS
  #undef R_ANZ_MESS
  #define R_ANZ_MESS ANZ_MESS
#endif
#if U_SCALE < 0
  // limit U_SCALE
  #undef U_SCALE
  #define U_SCALE 1
#endif
#if U_SCALE > 4
  // limit U_SCALE
  #undef U_SCALE
  #define U_SCALE 4
#endif
#ifndef REF_L_KORR
  #define REF_L_KORR 50
#endif


// the following definitions specify where to load external data from: EEprom or flash
#ifdef USE_EEPROM
  #define MEM_TEXT EEMEM

  #if E2END > 0X1FF
    #define MEM2_TEXT EEMEM
    #define MEM2_read_byte(a)  eeprom_read_byte(a)
    #define MEM2_read_word(a)  eeprom_read_word(a)
    #define lcd_fix2_string(a)  lcd_fix_string(a)
  #else
    #define MEM2_TEXT PROGMEM
    #define MEM2_read_byte(a)  pgm_read_byte(a)
    #define MEM2_read_word(a)  pgm_read_word(a)
    #define lcd_fix2_string(a)  lcd_pgm_string(a)
    #define use_lcd_pgm
  #endif

  #define MEM_read_word(a)  eeprom_read_word(a)
  #define MEM_read_byte(a)  eeprom_read_byte(a)

#else
  #define MEM_TEXT PROGMEM
  #define MEM2_TEXT PROGMEM
  #define MEM_read_word(a)  pgm_read_word(a)
  #define MEM_read_byte(a)  pgm_read_byte(a)
  #define MEM2_read_byte(a)  pgm_read_byte(a)
  #define MEM2_read_word(a)  pgm_read_word(a)
  #define lcd_fix2_string(a)  lcd_pgm_string(a)
  #define use_lcd_pgm
#endif


// RH_OFFSET : systematic offset of resistor measurement with RH (470k) 
// resolution is 0.1 Ohm, 3500 defines a offset of 350 Ohm
#define RH_OFFSET 3500 

// TP2_CAP_OFFSET is a additionally offset for TP2 capacity measurements in pF units
#define TP2_CAP_OFFSET 2

// CABLE_CAP defines the capacity (pF) of 12cm cable with clip at the terminal pins
#define CABLE_CAP 3


// select the right Processor Typ
/*
#if defined(__AVR_ATmega48__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 168
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega48P__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 168
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega88__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 168
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega88P__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 168
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega168__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 168
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega168P__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 168
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega328__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 328
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega328P__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 328
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega640__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 1280
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega1280__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 1280
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega2560__)
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 1280
#else
  #define PROCESSOR_TYP 8
#endif
*/
#define PROCESSOR_TYP 328


// automatic selection of right call type
#if FLASHEND > 0X1FFF
  #define ACALL call
#else
  #define ACALL rcall
#endif


// automatic selection of option and parameters for different AVRs

//------------------=========----------
#if PROCESSOR_TYP == 168
//------------------=========----------
  #define MCU_STATUS_REG MCUCR
  #define ADC_COMP_CONTROL ADCSRB
  #define TI1_INT_FLAGS TIFR1
  #define DEFAULT_BAND_GAP 1070
  #define DEFAULT_RH_FAKT  884      // mega328 1070 mV
  // LONG_HFE  activates computation of current amplification factor with long variables
  #define LONG_HFE
  // COMMON_COLLECTOR activates measurement of current amplification factor in common collector circuit  (Emitter follower)
  #define COMMON_COLLECTOR
  #define MEGA168A 17
  #define MEGA168PA 18

  // Pin resistor values of ATmega168
  //#define PIN_RM 196
  //#define PIN_RP 225
  #define PIN_RM 190
  #define PIN_RP 220
  // CC0 defines the capacity of empty terminal pins 1 & 3 without cable
  #define CC0 36
  // Slew rate correction  val += COMP_SLEW1 / (val + COMP_SLEW2)
  #define COMP_SLEW1 4000
  #define COMP_SLEW2 220
  #define C_NULL CC0+CABLE_CAP+(COMP_SLEW1 / (CC0 + CABLE_CAP + COMP_SLEW2))
  #define MUX_INT_REF 0x0e	// channel number of internal 1.1 V

//------------------=========----------
#elif PROCESSOR_TYP == 328
//------------------=========----------
  #define MCU_STATUS_REG MCUCR
  #define ADC_COMP_CONTROL ADCSRB
  #define TI1_INT_FLAGS TIFR1
  #define DEFAULT_BAND_GAP 1070
  #define DEFAULT_RH_FAKT  884      // mega328 1070 mV
  // LONG_HFE  activates computation of current amplification factor with long variables
  #define LONG_HFE
  // COMMON_COLLECTOR activates measurement of current amplification factor in common collector circuit  (Emitter follower)
  #define COMMON_COLLECTOR

  #define PIN_RM 200
  #define PIN_RP 220
  // CC0 defines the capacity of empty terminal pins 1 & 3 without cable
  #define CC0 36
  // Slew rate correction  val += COMP_SLEW1 / (val + COMP_SLEW2)
  #define COMP_SLEW1 4000
  #define COMP_SLEW2 180
  #define C_NULL CC0+CABLE_CAP+(COMP_SLEW1 / (CC0 + CABLE_CAP + COMP_SLEW2))
  #define MUX_INT_REF 0x0e	// channel number of internal 1.1 V

//------------------=========----------
#elif PROCESSOR_TYP == 1280
//------------------=========----------
  #define MCU_STATUS_REG MCUCR
  #define ADC_COMP_CONTROL ADCSRB
  #define TI1_INT_FLAGS TIFR1
  #define DEFAULT_BAND_GAP 1070
  #define DEFAULT_RH_FAKT  884      // mega328 1070 mV
  // LONG_HFE  activates computation of current amplification factor with long variables
  #define LONG_HFE
  // COMMON_COLLECTOR activates measurement of current amplification factor in common collector circuit  (Emitter follower)
  #define COMMON_COLLECTOR

  #define PIN_RM 200
  #define PIN_RP 220
  // CC0 defines the capacity of empty terminal pins 1 & 3 without cable
  #define CC0 36
  // Slew rate correction  val += COMP_SLEW1 / (val + COMP_SLEW2)
  #define COMP_SLEW1 4000
  #define COMP_SLEW2 180
  #define C_NULL CC0+CABLE_CAP+(COMP_SLEW1 / (CC0 + CABLE_CAP + COMP_SLEW2))
  #define MUX_INT_REF 0x1e	/* channel number of internal 1.1 V */

//------------------=========----------
#else
//                   ATmega8
//------------------=========----------
  #define MCU_STATUS_REG MCUCSR
  #define ADC_COMP_CONTROL SFIOR
  #define TI1_INT_FLAGS TIFR
  #define DEFAULT_BAND_GAP 1298		//mega8 1298 mV
  #define DEFAULT_RH_FAKT  740      // mega8 1250 mV
  // LONG_HFE  activates computation of current amplification factor with long variables
  #define LONG_HFE
  // COMMON_COLLECTOR activates measurement of current amplification factor in common collector circuit  (Emitter follower)
  #define COMMON_COLLECTOR

  #define PIN_RM 196
  #define PIN_RP 240
  // CC0 defines the capacity of empty terminal pins 1 & 3 without cable
  #define CC0 27
  // Slew rate correction  val += COMP_SLEW1 / (val + COMP_SLEW2)
  #define COMP_SLEW1 0
  #define COMP_SLEW2 33
  #define C_NULL CC0+CABLE_CAP+(COMP_SLEW1 / (CC0 + CABLE_CAP + COMP_SLEW2))
  #define MUX_INT_REF 0x0e	/* channel number of internal 1.1 V */

  #ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
    #define INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE	/* do not use the sleep mode of ATmega */
  #endif
#endif

#if PROCESSOR_TYP == 8
  // 2.54V reference voltage + correction (fix for ATmega8)
  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    #define ADC_internal_reference (2560 + (int8_t)eeprom_read_byte((uint8_t *)&RefDiff))
  #else
    #define ADC_internal_reference (2560 + REF_R_KORR)
  #endif
#else
  // all other processors use a 1.1V reference
  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    #define ADC_internal_reference (ref_mv + (int8_t)eeprom_read_byte((uint8_t *)&RefDiff))
  #else
    #define ADC_internal_reference (ref_mv + REF_R_KORR)
  #endif
#endif


#ifndef REF_R_KORR
  #define REF_R_KORR 0
#endif
#ifndef REF_C_KORR
  #define REF_C_KORR 0
#endif

#define LONG_WAIT_TIME 28000
#define SHORT_WAIT_TIME 5000

#ifdef POWER_OFF
  // if POWER OFF function is selected, wait 14s
  // if POWER_OFF with parameter > 2, wait only 5s before repeating
  #if (POWER_OFF+0) > 2
    #define OFF_WAIT_TIME SHORT_WAIT_TIME
  #else
    #define OFF_WAIT_TIME LONG_WAIT_TIME
  #endif
#else
  // if POWER OFF function is not selected, wait 14s before repeat measurement
  #define OFF_WAIT_TIME  LONG_WAIT_TIME
#endif


//**********************************************************
// defines for the selection of a correctly  ADC-Clock 
// will match for 1MHz, 2MHz, 4MHz, 8MHz and 16MHz
// ADC-Clock can be 125000 or 250000 
// 250 kHz is out of the full accuracy specification!
// clock divider is 4, when CPU_Clock==1MHz and ADC_Clock==250kHz
// clock divider is 128, when CPU_Clock==16MHz and ADC_Clock==125kHz
#define F_ADC 125000
//#define F_ADC 250000
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 2
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS0) 
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 4
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS1) 
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 8
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS1) | (1<<ADPS0)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 16
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 32
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2) | (1<<ADPS0)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 64
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2) | (1<<ADPS1)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC == 128
  #define AUTO_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2) | (1<<ADPS1) | (1<<ADPS0)
#endif
//**********************************************************
#define F_ADC_F 500000
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 2
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS0) 
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 4
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS1) 
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 8
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS1) | (1<<ADPS0)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 16
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 32
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2) | (1<<ADPS0)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 64
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2) | (1<<ADPS1)
#endif
#if F_CPU/F_ADC_F == 128
  #define FAST_CLOCK_DIV (1<<ADPS2) | (1<<ADPS1) | (1<<ADPS0)
#endif


#ifndef PIN_RP
  #define PIN_RP  220           // estimated internal resistance PORT to VCC
                                // will only be used, if not set before in config.h
#endif
#ifndef PIN_RM
  #define PIN_RM  190           // estimated internal resistance PORT to GND
                                // will only be used, if not set before in config.h
#endif

//**********************************************************

// defines for the WITH_UART option
/*
With define SWUART_INVERT you can specify, if the software-UART operates normal or invers.
in the normal mode the UART sends with usual logik level (Low = 0; High = 1).
You can use this mode for direct connection to a uC, or a level converter like MAX232.

With invers mode the UART sends with invers logik (Low = 1, High = 0).
This is the level of a standard RS232 port of a PC.
In most cases the output of the software UART can so be connected to the RxD of a PC.
The specification say, that level -3V to 3V is unspecified, but in most cases it works.
Is a simple but unclean solution.

Is SWUART_INVERT defined, the UART works is inverse mode
*/
//#define SWUART_INVERT

#define TxD 3	  // TxD-Pin of Software-UART; must be at Port C !
#ifdef WITH_UART
  #define TXD_MSK (1<<TxD)
#else
  #define TXD_MSK 0xF8
#endif

#ifdef SWUART_INVERT
  #define TXD_VAL 0
#else
  #define TXD_VAL TXD_MSK
#endif


#ifdef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
  // save memory, do not use the sleep mode
  #define wait_about5ms() wait5ms()
  #define wait_about10ms() wait10ms()
  #define wait_about20ms() wait20ms()
  #define wait_about30ms() wait30ms()
  #define wait_about50ms() wait50ms()
  #define wait_about100ms() wait100ms()
  #define wait_about200ms() wait200ms()
  #define wait_about300ms() wait300ms()
  #define wait_about400ms() wait400ms()
  #define wait_about500ms() wait500ms()
  #define wait_about1s() wait1s()
  #define wait_about2s() wait2s()
  #define wait_about3s() wait3s()
  #define wait_about4s() wait4s()
#else
  // use sleep mode to save current for user interface
  #define wait_about5ms() sleep_5ms(1)
  #define wait_about10ms() sleep_5ms(2)
  #define wait_about20ms() sleep_5ms(4)
  #define wait_about30ms() sleep_5ms(6)
  #define wait_about50ms() sleep_5ms(10)
  #define wait_about100ms() sleep_5ms(20)
  #define wait_about200ms() sleep_5ms(40)
  #define wait_about300ms() sleep_5ms(60)
  #define wait_about400ms() sleep_5ms(80)
  #define wait_about500ms() sleep_5ms(100)
  #define wait_about1s() sleep_5ms(200)
  #define wait_about2s() sleep_5ms(400)
  #define wait_about3s() sleep_5ms(600)
  #define wait_about4s() sleep_5ms(800)
#endif


#undef AUTO_RH
#ifdef WITH_AUTO_REF
  #define AUTO_RH
#else
  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    #define AUTO_RH
  #endif
#endif

#undef CHECK_CALL
#ifdef WITH_SELFTEST
  // AutoCheck Function is needed
  #define CHECK_CALL
#endif

#ifdef AUTO_CAL
  // AutoCheck Function is needed
  #define CHECK_CALL
  #define RR680PL resis680pl
  #define RR680MI resis680mi
  #define RRpinPL pin_rpl
  #define RRpinMI pin_rmi
#else
  #define RR680PL (R_L_VAL + PIN_RP)
  #define RR680MI (R_L_VAL + PIN_RM)
  #define RRpinPL (PIN_RP)
  #define RRpinMI (PIN_RM)
#endif

#ifndef ESR_ZERO
  // define a default zero value for ESR measurement (0.01 Ohm units)
  #define ESR_ZERO 20
#endif

#ifndef RESTART_DELAY_TICS
  // define the processor restart delay for crystal oscillator 16K
  // only set, if no preset (Makefile) exists.
  #define RESTART_DELAY_TICS 16384
  // for ceramic oscillator 258 or 1024 Clock tics can be selected with fuses
  // for external oscillator or RC-oscillator is only a delay of 6 clock tics.
#endif

// with EBC_STYLE you can select the Pin-description in EBC= style instead of 123=??? style
//#define EBC_STYLE
#if EBC_STYLE == 123
  // unset the option for the 123 selection, since this style is default.
  #undef EBC_STYLE
#endif


#ifdef NOK5110
  #define LCD_CHAR_DIODE1 0x91
  #define LCD_CHAR_DIODE2 0x92
  #define LCD_CHAR_CAP    0x93
  #define LCD_CHAR_RESIS1 0x94
  #define LCD_CHAR_RESIS2 0x95
  #define LCD_CHAR_OMEGA  0x90
  #define LCD_CHAR_U      0xB5

#else
  // self build characters 
  #define LCD_CHAR_DIODE1  1      // Diode-Icon; will be generated as custom character
  #define LCD_CHAR_DIODE2  2      // Diode-Icon; will be generated as custom character
  #define LCD_CHAR_CAP 3          // Capacitor-Icon;  will be generated as custom character
  // numbers of RESIS1 and RESIS2 are swapped for OLED display, which shows a corrupt RESIS1 character otherwise ???
  #define LCD_CHAR_RESIS1 7       // Resistor left part will be generated as custom character
  #define LCD_CHAR_RESIS2 6       // Resistor right part will be generated as custom character

  #ifdef LCD_CYRILLIC
    #define LCD_CHAR_OMEGA  4       // Omega-character
    #define LCD_CHAR_U  5           // micro-character
  #else
    #define LCD_CHAR_OMEGA  244     // Omega-character
    #define LCD_CHAR_U  228         // micro-character
  #endif

  #ifdef LCD_DOGM
    #undef LCD_CHAR_OMEGA
    #define LCD_CHAR_OMEGA 0x1e     // Omega-character for DOGM module
    #undef LCD_CHAR_U
    #define LCD_CHAR_U  5           // micro-character for DOGM module loadable
  #endif

  #define LCD_CHAR_DEGREE 0xdf      // Character for degree
#endif

#endif  // #ifndef ADC_PORT


// the hFE (B) can be determined with common collector and common emitter circuit
// with more than 16K both methodes are possible
#ifdef COMMON_COLLECTOR
  #if FLASHEND > 0x3fff
    #define COMMON_EMITTER
  #endif
#else
  #define COMMON_EMITTER
#endif

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

#define MAIN_C

#if defined (MAIN_C)
  #define COMMON
  /*
  The voltage at a capacitor grows with  Uc = VCC * (1 - e**(-t/T))
  The voltage 1.3V is reached at  t = -ln(3.7/5)*T  = 0.3011*T . 
  Time constant is  T = R * C ; also
  C = T / R
  for the resistor 470 kOhm  is C = t / (0.3011 * 470000)
  H_Fakt = 707/100 for a result in pF units.
  */

// Big Capacities (>50uF) are measured with up to 500 load-pulses with the 680 Ohm resistor.
// Each  of this load-puls has an length of 10ms. After every load-pulse the voltage of the
// capacitor is measured. If the voltage is more than 300mV, the capacity is computed by
// interpolating the corresponding values of the table RLtab and multiply that with the number
// of load pulses (*10).

// Widerstand 680 Ohm                300   325   350   375   400   425   450   475   500   525   550   575   600   625   650   675   700   725   750   775   800   825   850   875   900   925   950   975  1000  1025  1050  1075  1100  1125  1150  1175  1200  1225  1250  1275  1300  1325  1350  1375  1400  mV
const uint16_t RLtab[] MEM_TEXT = {22447,20665,19138,17815,16657,15635,14727,13914,13182,12520,11918,11369,10865,10401, 9973, 9577, 9209, 8866, 8546, 8247, 7966, 7702, 7454, 7220, 6999, 6789, 6591, 6403, 6224, 6054, 5892, 5738, 5590, 5449, 5314, 5185, 5061, 4942, 4828, 4718, 4613, 4511, 4413, 4319, 4228};

#if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
  //                                {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63,  64,  65,  66,  67,  68,  69,  70,  71,  72,  73,  74,  75,  76,  77,  78,  79,  80,  81,  82,  83,  84,  85,  86,  87,  88,  89,  90,  91 };
  const uint16_t LogTab[] PROGMEM = {0, 20, 41, 62, 83, 105, 128, 151, 174, 198, 223, 248, 274, 301, 329, 357, 386, 416, 446, 478, 511, 545, 580, 616, 654, 693, 734, 777, 821, 868, 916, 968, 1022, 1079, 1139, 1204, 1273, 1347, 1427, 1514, 1609, 1715, 1833, 1966, 2120, 2303, 2526 };
#endif

#ifdef AUTO_RH
  // resistor  470000 Ohm      1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400  mV
  const uint16_t RHtab[] PROGMEM = { 954, 903, 856, 814, 775, 740, 707, 676, 648};
#endif

// with integer factors the ADC-value will be changed to mV resolution in ReadADC !
// all if statements are corrected to the mV resolution.


// Strings in PROGMEM or in EEprom

#if defined(LANG_GERMAN)		// deutsch
   const unsigned char TestRunning[] MEM_TEXT = "Testen...";
   const unsigned char BatWeak[] MEM_TEXT = "gering";
   const unsigned char BatEmpty[] MEM_TEXT = "leer!";
   const unsigned char TestFailed2[] MEM_TEXT = "defektes ";
   const unsigned char Component[] MEM_TEXT = "Bauteil";
//   const unsigned char Diode[] MEM_TEXT = "Diode: ";
   const unsigned char Triac[] MEM_TEXT = "Triac";
   const unsigned char Thyristor[] MEM_TEXT = "Thyristor";
   const unsigned char Unknown[] MEM_TEXT = " unbek.";
   const unsigned char TestFailed1[] MEM_TEXT = "Kein,unbek. oder";
   const unsigned char OrBroken[] MEM_TEXT = "oder defekt ";
   const unsigned char TestTimedOut[] MEM_TEXT = "Timeout!";
   #define Cathode_char 'K'
 #ifdef WITH_SELFTEST
   const unsigned char SELFTEST[] MEM_TEXT = "Selbsttest ..";
   const unsigned char RELPROBE[] MEM_TEXT = "isolate Probe!";
   const unsigned char ATE[] MEM_TEXT = "Test Ende";
 #endif
#endif

#if defined(LANG_ENGLISH)		// english
  const unsigned char TestRunning[] MEM_TEXT = "testing...";
  const unsigned char BatWeak[] MEM_TEXT = "weak";
  const unsigned char BatEmpty[] MEM_TEXT = "empty!";
  const unsigned char TestFailed2[] MEM_TEXT = "damaged ";
  const unsigned char Component[] MEM_TEXT = "part";
  //const unsigned char Diode[] MEM_TEXT = "Diode: ";
  const unsigned char Triac[] MEM_TEXT = "Triac";
  const unsigned char Thyristor[] MEM_TEXT = "Thyristor";
  const unsigned char Unknown[] MEM_TEXT = " unknown";
  const unsigned char TestFailed1[] MEM_TEXT = "No,unknown,or";
  const unsigned char OrBroken[] MEM_TEXT = "or damaged ";
  const unsigned char TestTimedOut[] MEM_TEXT = "Timeout!";
  #define Cathode_char 'C'

  #ifdef WITH_SELFTEST
    const unsigned char SELFTEST[] MEM_TEXT = "Selftest mode..";
    const unsigned char RELPROBE[] MEM_TEXT = "isolate Probe!";
    const unsigned char ATE[] MEM_TEXT = "Test End";
  #endif
#endif


// Strings, which are not dependent of any language
const unsigned char Bat_str[] MEM_TEXT = "Bat. ";
const unsigned char OK_str[] MEM_TEXT = "OK";
const unsigned char mosfet_str[] MEM_TEXT = "-MOS";
const unsigned char jfet_str[] MEM_TEXT = "JFET";
const unsigned char GateCap_str[] MEM_TEXT = "C=";
const unsigned char hfe_str[] MEM_TEXT ="B=";
const unsigned char NPN_str[] MEM_TEXT = "NPN ";
const unsigned char PNP_str[] MEM_TEXT = "PNP ";

#ifndef EBC_STYLE
  const unsigned char N123_str[] MEM_TEXT = " 123=";
  //const unsigned char N123_str[] MEM_TEXT = " Pin=";
#else
  #if EBC_STYLE == 321
    const unsigned char N321_str[] MEM_TEXT = " 321=";
  #endif
#endif

const unsigned char Uf_str[] MEM_TEXT = "Uf=";
const unsigned char vt_str[] MEM_TEXT = " Vt=";
const unsigned char Vgs_str[] MEM_TEXT = "@Vgs=";
const unsigned char CapZeich[] MEM_TEXT = {'-',LCD_CHAR_CAP,'-',0};
const unsigned char Cell_str[] MEM_TEXT = "Cell!";
const unsigned char VCC_str[] MEM_TEXT = "VCC=";

#if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
  const unsigned char ESR_str[] MEM_TEXT = " ESR=";
  const unsigned char VLOSS_str[] MEM_TEXT = " Vloss=";
  const unsigned char Lis_str[] MEM_TEXT = "L=";
  const unsigned char Ir_str[] MEM_TEXT = "  Ir=";

  #ifndef WITH_UART
    //#define WITH_VEXT
  #endif
#else
  #ifndef BAT_CHECK
    #ifndef WITH_UART
      //#define WITH_VEXT
    #endif
  #endif
#endif

#ifdef WITH_VEXT
  const unsigned char Vext_str[] MEM_TEXT = "Vext=";
  #define LCD_CLEAR
#endif


const unsigned char VERSION_str[] MEM2_TEXT = "Ttester 1.08.2";

const unsigned char AnKat[] MEM_TEXT = {'-', LCD_CHAR_DIODE1, '-',0};
const unsigned char KatAn[] MEM_TEXT = {'-', LCD_CHAR_DIODE2, '-',0};
const unsigned char Diodes[] MEM_TEXT = {'*',LCD_CHAR_DIODE1, ' ', ' ',0};
const unsigned char Resistor_str[] MEM_TEXT = {'-', LCD_CHAR_RESIS1, LCD_CHAR_RESIS2,'-',0};

#ifdef WITH_SELFTEST
  const unsigned char URefT[] MEM2_TEXT = "Ref=";
  const unsigned char RHfakt[] MEM2_TEXT = "RHf=";
  const unsigned char RH1L[] MEM_TEXT = "RH-";
  const unsigned char RH1H[] MEM_TEXT = "RH+";
  const unsigned char RLRL[] MEM_TEXT = "+RL- 12 13 23";
  const unsigned char RHRH[] MEM_TEXT = "+RH- 12 13 23";
  const unsigned char RHRL[] MEM_TEXT = "RH/RL";
  const unsigned char R0_str[] MEM2_TEXT = "R0=";
  #define LCD_CLEAR
#endif
 
#ifdef CHECK_CALL
  const unsigned char RIHI[] MEM_TEXT = "Ri_Hi=";
  const unsigned char RILO[] MEM_TEXT = "Ri_Lo=";
  const unsigned char C0_str[] MEM_TEXT = "C0 ";
  const unsigned char T50HZ[] MEM_TEXT = " 50Hz";
#endif

#ifdef AUTO_CAL
  const unsigned char MinCap_str[] MEM2_TEXT = " >100nF";
  const unsigned char REF_C_str[] MEM2_TEXT = "REF_C=";
  const unsigned char REF_R_str[] MEM2_TEXT = "REF_R=";
#endif

#ifdef DebugOut
  #define LCD_CLEAR
#endif


const unsigned char DiodeIcon1[] MEM_TEXT = { 0x11, 0x19, 0x1d, 0x1f, 0x1d, 0x19, 0x11, 0x00 }; // Diode-Icon Anode left
const unsigned char DiodeIcon2[] MEM_TEXT = { 0x11, 0x13, 0x17, 0x1f, 0x17, 0x13, 0x11, 0x00 }; // Diode-Icon Anode right
const unsigned char CapIcon[]    MEM_TEXT = { 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x00 }; // Capacitor Icon
const unsigned char ResIcon1[]   MEM_TEXT = { 0x00, 0x0f, 0x08, 0x18, 0x08, 0x0f, 0x00, 0x00 }; // Resistor Icon1 left
const unsigned char ResIcon2[]   MEM_TEXT = { 0x00, 0x1e, 0x02, 0x03, 0x02, 0x1e, 0x00, 0x00 }; // Resistor Icon2 right
const unsigned char OmegaIcon[]  MEM_TEXT = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x0e, 0x11, 0x11, 0x0a, 0x1b, 0x00 }; // Omega Icon
const unsigned char MicroIcon[]  MEM_TEXT = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x0a, 0x0a, 0x0a, 0x0e, 0x09, 0x10 }; // Micro Icon

const unsigned char PinRLtab[] PROGMEM = { (1<<(TP1*2)), (1<<(TP2*2)), (1<<(TP3*2))};  // Table of commands to switch the  R-L resistors Pin 0,1,2
const unsigned char PinADCtab[] PROGMEM = { (1<<TP1), (1<<TP2), (1<<TP3)};  // Table of commands to switch the ADC-Pins 0,1,2

/*
// generate Omega- and u-character as Custom-character, if these characters has a number of loadable type
#if LCD_CHAR_OMEGA < 8
  const unsigned char CyrillicOmegaIcon[] MEM_TEXT = {0,0,14,17,17,10,27,0};	// Omega
#endif
#if LCD_CHAR_U < 8
  const unsigned char CyrillicMuIcon[] MEM_TEXT = {0,17,17,17,19,29,16,16};	// micro
#endif
*/

#ifdef AUTO_CAL
  //const uint16_t R680pl EEMEM = R_L_VAL+PIN_RP;	// total resistor to VCC
  //const uint16_t R680mi EEMEM = R_L_VAL+PIN_RM;	// total resistor to GND
  const int8_t RefDiff EEMEM = REF_R_KORR;		// correction of internal Reference Voltage
#endif

const uint8_t PrefixTab[] MEM_TEXT = { 'p','n',LCD_CHAR_U,'m',0,'k','M'};  // p,n,u,m,-,k,M

#ifdef AUTO_CAL
  //const uint16_t cap_null EEMEM = C_NULL;	// Zero offset of capacity measurement 
  const int16_t ref_offset EEMEM = REF_C_KORR;	// default correction of internal reference voltage for capacity measurement
  // LoPin:HiPin                        2:1    3:1    1:2                    :     3:2                   1:3    2:3
  const uint8_t c_zero_tab[] EEMEM = { C_NULL,C_NULL,C_NULL+TP2_CAP_OFFSET,C_NULL,C_NULL+TP2_CAP_OFFSET,C_NULL,C_NULL }; // table of zero offsets
#endif

const uint8_t EE_ESR_ZEROtab[] PROGMEM = {ESR_ZERO, ESR_ZERO, ESR_ZERO, ESR_ZERO};	// zero offset of ESR measurement

// End of EEPROM-Strings

// Multiplier for capacity measurement with R_H (470KOhm)
unsigned int RHmultip = DEFAULT_RH_FAKT;


#else
  // no MAIN_C
  #define COMMON extern
  #ifdef WITH_SELFTEST
    extern const unsigned char SELFTEST[] MEM_TEXT;
    extern const unsigned char RELPROBE[] MEM_TEXT;
    extern const unsigned char ATE[] MEM_TEXT;
  #endif

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    //extern uint16_t R680pl;
    //extern uint16_t R680mi;
    extern int8_t RefDiff;
    extern uint16_t ref_offset;
    extern uint8_t c_zero_tab[];
  #endif

  extern const uint8_t EE_ESR_ZEROtab[] EEMEM;	// zero offset of ESR measurement
  extern const uint16_t RLtab[];

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    extern uint16_t LogTab[];
    extern const unsigned char ESR_str[];
  #endif

  #ifdef AUTO_RH
    extern const uint16_t RHtab[];
  #endif

  extern const unsigned char PinRLtab[];
  extern const unsigned char PinADCtab[];
  extern unsigned int RHmultip;

#endif  // MAIN_C


struct Diode_t {
  uint8_t Anode;
  uint8_t Cathode;
  unsigned int Voltage;
};

COMMON struct Diode_t diodes[6];
COMMON uint8_t NumOfDiodes;

COMMON struct {
  unsigned long hfe[2];		// current amplification factor 
  unsigned int uBE[2];		// B-E-voltage of the Transistor
  uint8_t b,c,e;		// pins of the Transistor
}trans;

COMMON unsigned int gthvoltage;	// Gate-threshold voltage 

COMMON uint8_t PartReady;	// part detection is finished 
COMMON uint8_t PartMode;
COMMON uint8_t tmpval, tmpval2;
COMMON unsigned int ref_mv;     // Reference-voltage  in mV units

COMMON struct resis_t{
  unsigned long rx;		// value of resistor RX  
  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    unsigned long lx;		// inductance 10uH or 100uH
    int8_t lpre;		// prefix for inductance
  #endif
  uint8_t ra,rb;		// Pins of RX
  uint8_t rt;			// Tristate-Pin (inactive)
} resis[3];

COMMON uint8_t ResistorsFound;	// Number of found resistors
COMMON uint8_t ii;		// multipurpose counter

COMMON struct cap_t {
  unsigned long cval;		// capacitor value 
  unsigned long cval_max;	// capacitor with maximum value
  union t_combi{
  unsigned long dw;		// capacity value without corrections
  uint16_t w[2];
  } cval_uncorrected;
  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    unsigned int esr;		// serial resistance of C in 0.01 Ohm
    unsigned int v_loss;	// voltage loss 0.1%
  #endif
  uint8_t ca, cb;		// pins of capacitor
  int8_t cpre;			// Prefix for capacitor value  -12=p, -9=n, -6=u, -3=m
  int8_t cpre_max;		// Prefix of the biggest capacitor
} cap;

#ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
  // with sleep mode we need a global ovcnt16
  COMMON volatile uint16_t ovcnt16;
  COMMON volatile uint8_t unfinished;
#endif

COMMON int16_t load_diff;	// difference voltage of loaded capacitor and internal reference

COMMON uint8_t WithReference;	// Marker for found precision voltage reference = 1
COMMON uint8_t PartFound;	// the found part 
COMMON char outval[12];		// String for ASCII-outpu
COMMON uint8_t empty_count;	// counter for max count of empty measurements
COMMON uint8_t mess_count;	// counter for max count of nonempty measurements

COMMON struct ADCconfig_t {
  uint8_t Samples;		// number of ADC samples to take
  uint8_t RefFlag;		// save Reference type VCC of IntRef
  uint16_t U_Bandgap;		// Reference Voltage in mV
  uint16_t U_AVCC;		// Voltage of AVCC
} ADCconfig;

#ifdef AUTO_CAL
  COMMON uint8_t pin_combination;	// coded Pin-combination  2:1,3:1,1:2,x:x,3:2,1:3,2:3
  COMMON uint16_t resis680pl;	// port output resistance + 680
  COMMON uint16_t resis680mi;	// port output resistance + 680
  COMMON uint16_t pin_rmi;	// port output resistance to GND side, 0.1 Ohm units
  COMMON uint16_t pin_rpl;	// port output resistance to VCC side, 0.1 Ohm units
#endif

#if POWER_OFF+0 > 1
  COMMON unsigned int display_time;	// display time of measurement in ms units
#endif

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// definitions of parts
#define PART_NONE 0
#define PART_DIODE 1
#define PART_TRANSISTOR 2
#define PART_FET 3
#define PART_TRIAC 4
#define PART_THYRISTOR 5
#define PART_RESISTOR 6
#define PART_CAPACITOR 7
#define PART_CELL 8

// special definition for different parts 
// FETs
#define PART_MODE_N_E_MOS 2
#define PART_MODE_P_E_MOS 3
#define PART_MODE_N_D_MOS 4
#define PART_MODE_P_D_MOS 5
#define PART_MODE_N_JFET 6
#define PART_MODE_P_JFET 7

// Bipolar
#define PART_MODE_NPN 1
#define PART_MODE_PNP 2

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// wait functions
#define  wait5s()    delay(5000)
#define  wait4s()    delay(4000)
#define  wait3s()    delay(3000)
#define  wait2s()    delay(2000)
#define  wait1s()    delay(1000)
#define  wait500ms() delay(500)
#define  wait400ms() delay(400)
#define  wait300ms() delay(300)
#define  wait200ms() delay(200)
#define  wait100ms() delay(100)
#define  wait50ms()  delay(50)
#define  wait40ms()  delay(40)
#define  wait30ms()  delay(30)
#define  wait20ms()  delay(20)
#define  wait10ms()  delay(10)
#define  wait5ms()   delay(5)
#define  wait4ms()   delay(4)
#define  wait3ms()   delay(3)
#define  wait2ms()   delay(2)
#define  wait1ms()   delay(1)
#define  wait500us() delayMicroseconds(500)
#define  wait400us() delayMicroseconds(400)
#define  wait300us() delayMicroseconds(300)
#define  wait200us() delayMicroseconds(200)
#define  wait100us() delayMicroseconds(100)
#define  wait50us()  delayMicroseconds(50)
#define  wait40us()  delayMicroseconds(40)
#define  wait30us()  delayMicroseconds(30)
#define  wait20us()  delayMicroseconds(20)
#define  wait10us()  delayMicroseconds(10)
#define  wait5us()   delayMicroseconds(5)
#define  wait4us()   delayMicroseconds(4)
#define  wait3us()   delayMicroseconds(3)
#define  wait2us()   delayMicroseconds(2)
#define  wait1us()   delayMicroseconds(1)

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// Interfacing of a HD44780 compatible LCD with 4-Bit-Interface mode

// LCD-commands
#define CMD_ClearDisplay         0x01
#define CMD_ReturnHome           0x02
#define CMD_SetEntryMode         0x04
#define CMD_SetDisplayAndCursor  0x08
#define CMD_SetIFOptions         0x20
#define CMD_SetCGRAMAddress      0x40    // for Custom character
#define CMD_SetDDRAMAddress      0x80    // set Cursor 

#define CMD1_SetBias             0x10	 // set Bias (instruction table 1, DOGM)
#define CMD1_PowerControl        0x50	 // Power Control, set Contrast C5:C4 (instruction table 1, DOGM)
#define CMD1_FollowerControl     0x60	 // Follower Control, amplified ratio (instruction table 1, DOGM)
#define CMD1_SetContrast         0x70	 // set Contrast C3:C0 (instruction table 1, DOGM)

// Makros for LCD
#define lcd_line1() lcd_set_cursor(0,0)  // move to beginning of 1 row
#define lcd_line2() lcd_set_cursor(1,0)  // move to beginning of 2 row
#define lcd_line3() lcd_set_cursor(2,0)  // move to beginning of 3 row
#define lcd_line4() lcd_set_cursor(3,0)  // move to beginning of 4 row

#define uart_newline() Serial.println()

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

#ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
  // prepare sleep mode
  EMPTY_INTERRUPT(TIMER2_COMPA_vect);
  EMPTY_INTERRUPT(ADC_vect);
#endif

uint8_t tmp = 0;
//unsigned int PRR;

byte TestKey;
byte TestKeyPin = 17;  // A3

#ifdef LCD1602
  #ifdef LCD_I2C
    LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x3F, 16, 2);
  #else
    LiquidCrystal lcd(7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2);  // RS,E,D4,D5,D6,D7
  #endif
#endif

#ifdef NOK5110
  Adafruit_PCD8544 lcd = Adafruit_PCD8544(3, 4, 5, 6, 7);  // CLK,DIN,DC,CE,RST
#endif

// begin of transistortester program
void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);

  pinMode(TestKeyPin, INPUT);

  #ifdef LCD1602
    #ifdef LCD_I2C
      lcd.begin();
    #else
      lcd.begin(16,2);
    #endif

    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_DIODE1, DiodeIcon1);  // Custom-Character Diode symbol >|
    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_DIODE2, DiodeIcon2);  // Custom-Character Diode symbol |<
    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_CAP,    CapIcon);     // Custom-Character Capacitor symbol ||
    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_RESIS1, ResIcon1);    // Custom-Character Resistor symbol [
    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_RESIS2, ResIcon2);    // Custom-Character Resistor symbol ]
    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,  OmegaIcon);   // load Omega as Custom-Character
    lcd_pgm_custom_char(LCD_CHAR_U,      MicroIcon);   // load Micro as Custom-Character
    lcd.home();
  
    lcd_string("TransistorTester");
    lcd_set_cursor(1, 0);
    lcd_string("forArduino 1.08a");
  #endif

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd.begin();
    lcd.cp437(true);
    lcd.setContrast(60); //Контрастность в % дисплея 5110
    lcd.clearDisplay();

    lcd_string("Transistor");
    lcd_set_cursor(1, 0);
    lcd_string("Tester");
    lcd_set_cursor(2, 0);
    lcd_string("for Arduino");
    lcd_set_cursor(3, 0);
    lcd_string("1.08.002");
  #endif

  //ON_DDR = 0;
  //ON_PORT = 0;

/*
  // switch on
  ON_DDR = (1<<ON_PIN);			// switch to output
  #ifdef PULLUP_DISABLE
    ON_PORT = (1<<ON_PIN); 		// switch power on 
  #else
    ON_PORT = (1<<ON_PIN)|(1<<RST_PIN); 	// switch power on , enable internal Pullup for Start-Pin
  #endif
*/

  // ADC-Init
  ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV;	// prescaler=8 or 64 (if 8Mhz clock)

  #ifdef __AVR_ATmega8__
    //#define WDRF_HOME MCU_STATUS_REG
    #define WDRF_HOME MCUCSR
  #else
    #define WDRF_HOME MCUSR
  #endif

/*
  tmp = (WDRF_HOME & (1<<WDRF));	// save Watch Dog Flag
  WDRF_HOME &= ~(1<<WDRF);	 	// reset Watch Dog flag
  wdt_disable();			// disable Watch Dog
*/

/*
  #ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
    // switch off unused Parts
    PRR = (1<<PRTWI) | (1<<PRTIM0) | (1<<PRSPI) | (1<<PRUSART0);
    DIDR0 = (1<<ADC5D) | (1<<ADC4D) | (1<<ADC3D);	
    TCCR2A = (0<<WGM21) | (0<<WGM20);			// Counter 2 normal mode

    #if F_CPU <= 1000000UL
      TCCR2B = (1<<CS22) | (0<<CS21) | (1<<CS20);	// prescaler 128, 128us @ 1MHz
      #define T2_PERIOD 128
    #endif 
    #if F_CPU == 2000000UL
      TCCR2B = (1<<CS22) | (1<<CS21) | (0<<CS20);	// prescaler 256, 128us @ 2MHz
      #define T2_PERIOD 128
    #endif 
    #if F_CPU == 4000000UL
      TCCR2B = (1<<CS22) | (1<<CS21) | (0<<CS20);	// prescaler 256, 64us @ 2MHz
      #define T2_PERIOD 64
    #endif 
    #if F_CPU >= 8000000UL
      TCCR2B = (1<<CS22) | (1<<CS21) | (1<<CS20);	// prescaler 1024, 128us @ 8MHz, 64us @ 16MHz
      #define T2_PERIOD (1024 / (F_CPU / 1000000UL));	// set to 128 or 64 us 
    #endif 

    sei();	// enable interrupts
  #endif
*/

  #define T2_PERIOD (1024 / (F_CPU / 1000000UL));	// set to 128 or 64 us 
	
  //ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;
  //ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;

  if(tmp) { 
    // check if Watchdog-Event 
    // this happens, if the Watchdog is not reset for 2s
    // can happen, if any loop in the Program doen't finish.
    lcd_line1();
    lcd_fix_string(TestTimedOut);	// Output Timeout
    wait_about3s();			// wait for 3 s
    //ON_PORT = 0;			// shut off!
    //ON_DDR = (1<<ON_PIN);		// switch to GND
    //return;
  }

  #ifdef PULLUP_DISABLE
    #ifdef __AVR_ATmega8__
      SFIOR = (1<<PUD);		// disable Pull-Up Resistors mega8
    #else
      MCUCR = (1<<PUD);		// disable Pull-Up Resistors mega168 family
    #endif
  #endif

  //DIDR0 = 0x3f;		// disable all Input register of ADC

/*
  #if POWER_OFF+0 > 1
    // tester display time selection
    display_time = OFF_WAIT_TIME;		// LONG_WAIT_TIME for single mode, else SHORT_WAIT_TIME
    if (!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
      // if power button is pressed ...
      wait_about300ms();			// wait to catch a long key press
      if (!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
        // check if power button is still pressed
        display_time = LONG_WAIT_TIME;		// ... set long time display anyway
      }
    }
  #else
    #define display_time OFF_WAIT_TIME
  #endif
*/

  #define display_time OFF_WAIT_TIME

  empty_count = 0;
  mess_count = 0;
}

void loop()
{
  // Entry: if start key is pressed before shut down
start:

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd.display();
  #endif

  TestKey = 1;
  while(TestKey) {
    TestKey = digitalRead(TestKeyPin);
    delay(100);
  }
  while(!TestKey) {
    TestKey = digitalRead(TestKeyPin);
    delay(100);
  }
  lcd_clear();
  delay(100);

  PartFound = PART_NONE;	// no part found
  NumOfDiodes = 0;		// Number of diodes = 0
  PartReady = 0;
  PartMode = 0;
  WithReference = 0;		// no precision reference voltage
  ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;		// activate Software-UART 
  ResistorsFound = 0;		// no resistors found
  cap.ca = 0;
  cap.cb = 0;

  #ifdef WITH_UART
    uart_newline();		// start of new measurement
  #endif

  ADCconfig.RefFlag = 0;
  Calibrate_UR();		// get Ref Voltages and Pin resistance
  lcd_line1();    // 1 row 
  
  ADCconfig.U_Bandgap = ADC_internal_reference;  // set internal reference voltage for ADC

  #ifdef BAT_CHECK
    // Battery check is selected
    ReadADC(TPBAT);			// Dummy-Readout
    trans.uBE[0] = W5msReadADC(TPBAT); 	// with 5V reference
    lcd_fix_string(Bat_str);		// output: "Bat. "

    #ifdef BAT_OUT
      // display Battery voltage
      // The divisor to get the voltage in 0.01V units is ((10*33)/133) witch is about 2.4812
      // A good result can be get with multiply by 4 and divide by 10 (about 0.75%).
      //cap.cval = (trans.uBE[0]*4)/10+((BAT_OUT+5)/10); // usually output only 2 digits
      //DisplayValue(cap.cval,-2,'V',2);		// Display 2 Digits of this 10mV units
      cap.cval = (trans.uBE[0]*4)+BAT_OUT;		// usually output only 2 digits
      DisplayValue(cap.cval,-3,'V',2);			// Display 2 Digits of this 10mV units
      lcd_space();
    #endif

    #if (BAT_POOR > 12000)
      #warning "Battery POOR level is set very high!"
    #endif
    #if (BAT_POOR < 2500)
      #warning "Battery POOR level is set very low!"
    #endif

    #if (BAT_POOR > 5300)
      // use .8 V difference to Warn-Level
      #define WARN_LEVEL (((unsigned long)(BAT_POOR+800)*(unsigned long)33)/133)
    #elif (BAT_POOR > 3249)
      // less than 5.4 V only .4V difference to Warn-Level
      #define WARN_LEVEL (((unsigned long)(BAT_POOR+400)*(unsigned long)33)/133)
    #elif (BAT_POOR > 1299)
      // less than 2.9 V only .2V difference to Warn-Level
      #define WARN_LEVEL (((unsigned long)(BAT_POOR+200)*(unsigned long)33)/133)
    #else
      // less than 1.3 V only .1V difference to Warn-Level
      #define WARN_LEVEL (((unsigned long)(BAT_POOR+100)*(unsigned long)33)/133)
    #endif

    #define POOR_LEVEL (((unsigned long)(BAT_POOR)*(unsigned long)33)/133)

    // check the battery voltage
    if (trans.uBE[0] <  WARN_LEVEL) {

      // Vcc < 7,3V; show Warning 
      if(trans.uBE[0] < POOR_LEVEL) {	
        // Vcc <6,3V; no proper operation is possible
        lcd_fix_string(BatEmpty);	// Battery empty!
        wait_about2s();
        PORTD = 0;			// switch power off
        return;
      }

      lcd_fix_string(BatWeak);		// Battery weak
    } else { // Battery-voltage OK
      lcd_fix_string(OK_str); 		// "OK"
    }

  #else
    lcd_fix2_string(VERSION_str);	// if no Battery check, Version .. in row 1
  #endif

  #ifdef WDT_enabled
    //wdt_enable(WDTO_2S);		// Watchdog on
  #endif

  //wait_about1s();			// add more time for reading batterie voltage

  // begin tests

  #ifdef AUTO_RH
    RefVoltage();			// compute RHmultip = f(reference voltage)
  #endif

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    if (WithReference) {
      // 2.5V precision reference is checked OK
      if ((mess_count == 0) && (empty_count == 0)) {
        // display VCC= only first time
        lcd_line2();
        lcd_fix_string(VCC_str);			// VCC=
        DisplayValue(ADCconfig.U_AVCC,-3,'V',3);	// Display 3 Digits of this mV units
        //lcd_space();
        //DisplayValue(RRpinMI,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4);
        wait_about1s();
      }
    }
  #endif

  #ifdef WITH_VEXT
    // show the external voltage
    while (!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
      lcd_line2();
      lcd_clear_line();
      lcd_line2();
      lcd_fix_string(Vext_str);			// Vext=
      ADC_DDR = 0;				// deactivate Software-UART
      trans.uBE[1] = W5msReadADC(TPext);	// read external voltage 
      ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;			// activate Software-UART 

      #ifdef WITH_UART
        uart_newline();		// start of new measurement
      #endif

      DisplayValue(trans.uBE[1]*10,-3,'V',3);	// Display 3 Digits of this mV units
      wait_about300ms();
    }
  #endif

  lcd_line2();			// LCD position row 2, column 1
  lcd_fix_string(TestRunning);	// String: testing...

  #ifndef DebugOut
    lcd_line2();		// LCD position row 2, column 1
  #endif

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd.display();
  #endif

  EntladePins();		// discharge all capacitors!

  if(PartFound == PART_CELL) {
    lcd_clear();
    lcd_fix_string(Cell_str);	// display "Cell!"
    goto end2;
  }

  #ifdef CHECK_CALL
    AutoCheck();		// check, if selftest should be done
  #endif
     
  // check all 6 combinations for the 3 pins 
  //       High  Low  Tri
  CheckPins(TP1, TP2, TP3);
  CheckPins(TP2, TP1, TP3);
  CheckPins(TP1, TP3, TP2);
  CheckPins(TP3, TP1, TP2);
  CheckPins(TP2, TP3, TP1);
  CheckPins(TP3, TP2, TP1);
  
  // separate check if is is a capacitor
  if(((PartFound == PART_NONE) || (PartFound == PART_RESISTOR) || (PartFound == PART_DIODE)) ) {
    EntladePins();		// discharge capacities
    // measurement of capacities in all 3 combinations
    cap.cval_max = 0;		// set max to zero
    cap.cpre_max = -12;		// set max to pF unit
    ReadCapacity(TP3, TP1);
    ReadCapacity(TP3, TP2);
    ReadCapacity(TP2, TP1);

    #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
      ReadInductance();		// measure inductance
    #endif
  }

  // All checks are done, output result to display
  lcd_clear();

  if(PartFound == PART_DIODE) {
    if(NumOfDiodes == 1) {		// single Diode
      //lcd_fix_string(Diode);		// "Diode: "

      #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
        // enough memory to sort the pins

        #if EBC_STYLE == 321
          // the higher test pin number is left side
          if (diodes[0].Anode > diodes[0].Cathode) {
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
            lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
          } else {
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
            lcd_fix_string(KatAn);          // "-|<-"
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
          }
        #else
          // the higher test pin number is right side
          if (diodes[0].Anode < diodes[0].Cathode) {
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
            lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
          } else {
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
            lcd_fix_string(KatAn);          // "-|<-"
            lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
          }
        #endif

      #else
        // too less memory to sort the pins
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
      #endif

      #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
        GetIr(diodes[0].Cathode,diodes[0].Anode);
      #endif

      UfOutput(0x70);

      #ifdef NOK5110
        lcd_line3();
      #endif

      // load current of capacity is (5V-1.1V)/(470000 Ohm) = 8298nA
      lcd_fix_string(GateCap_str);			// "C="
      ReadCapacity(diodes[0].Cathode,diodes[0].Anode);	// Capacity opposite flow direction
      DisplayValue(cap.cval,cap.cpre,'F',3);
      goto end;

    } else if(NumOfDiodes == 2) { 	// double diode
      lcd_data('2');
      lcd_fix_string(Diodes);		// "diodes "

      if(diodes[0].Anode == diodes[1].Anode) { //Common Anode
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
        lcd_fix_string(KatAn);          // "-|<-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[1].Cathode);
        UfOutput(0x01);
        goto end;

      } else if(diodes[0].Cathode == diodes[1].Cathode) { //Common Cathode
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
        lcd_fix_string(KatAn);          // "-|<-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[1].Anode);
        UfOutput(0x01);
        goto end;

      } else if ((diodes[0].Cathode == diodes[1].Anode) && (diodes[1].Cathode == diodes[0].Anode)) {
        // Antiparallel
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);          // "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[1].Cathode);
        UfOutput(0x01);
        goto end;
      }

    } else if(NumOfDiodes == 3) {
      // Serial of 2 Diodes; was detected as 3 Diodes 
      trans.b = 3;
      trans.c = 3;

      // Check for any constallation of 2 serial diodes:
      // Only once the pin No of anyone Cathode is identical of another anode.
      // two diodes in series is additionally detected as third big diode.

      if(diodes[0].Cathode == diodes[1].Anode) {
        trans.b = 0;
        trans.c = 1;
      }
      if(diodes[0].Anode == diodes[1].Cathode) {
        trans.b = 1;
        trans.c = 0;
      }
      if(diodes[0].Cathode == diodes[2].Anode) {
        trans.b = 0;
        trans.c = 2;
      }
      if(diodes[0].Anode == diodes[2].Cathode) {
        trans.b = 2;
        trans.c = 0;
      }
      if(diodes[1].Cathode == diodes[2].Anode) {
        trans.b = 1;
        trans.c = 2;
      }
      if(diodes[1].Anode == diodes[2].Cathode) {
        trans.b = 2;
        trans.c = 1;
      }

      #if DebugOut == 4
        lcd_line3();
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Anode);
        lcd_data(':');
        lcd_testpin(diodes[0].Cathode);
        lcd_space();
        lcd_string(utoa(diodes[0].Voltage, outval, 10));
        lcd_space();
        lcd_testpin(diodes[1].Anode);
        lcd_data(':');
        lcd_testpin(diodes[1].Cathode);
        lcd_space();
        lcd_string(utoa(diodes[1].Voltage, outval, 10));
        lcd_line4();
        lcd_testpin(diodes[2].Anode);
        lcd_data(':');
        lcd_testpin(diodes[2].Cathode);
        lcd_space();
        lcd_string(utoa(diodes[2].Voltage, outval, 10));
        lcd_line1();
      #endif

      if((trans.b < 3) && (trans.c < 3)) {
        lcd_data('3');
        lcd_fix_string(Diodes);			// "Diodes "
        lcd_testpin(diodes[trans.b].Anode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);			// "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[trans.b].Cathode);
        lcd_fix_string(AnKat);			// "->|-"
        lcd_testpin(diodes[trans.c].Cathode);
        UfOutput( (trans.b<<4)|trans.c);
        goto end;
      }
    }
    // end (PartFound == PART_DIODE)

  } else if (PartFound == PART_TRANSISTOR) {
    if(PartReady != 0) {
      if((trans.hfe[0]>trans.hfe[1])) {
        // if the amplification factor was higher at first testr: swap C and E !
        tmp = trans.c;
        trans.c = trans.e;
        trans.e = tmp;
      } else {
        trans.hfe[0] = trans.hfe[1];
        trans.uBE[0] = trans.uBE[1];
      }
    }

    if(PartMode == PART_MODE_NPN) {
      lcd_fix_string(NPN_str);		// "NPN "
    } else {
      lcd_fix_string(PNP_str);		// "PNP "
    }

    if( NumOfDiodes > 2) {	// Transistor with protection diode

      #ifdef EBC_STYLE
        #if EBC_STYLE == 321
          // Layout with 321= style
          if (((PartMode == PART_MODE_NPN) && (trans.c < trans.e)) || ((PartMode != PART_MODE_NPN) && (trans.c > trans.e)))
        #else
          // Layout with EBC= style
          if(PartMode == PART_MODE_NPN)
        #endif
      #else
        // Layout with 123= style
        if (((PartMode == PART_MODE_NPN) && (trans.c > trans.e)) || ((PartMode != PART_MODE_NPN) && (trans.c < trans.e)))
      #endif
        {
          lcd_fix_string(AnKat);  // "->|-"
        } else {
          lcd_fix_string(KatAn);  // "-|<-"
        }
    }

    #ifdef NOK5110
      lcd_line2();
    #endif

    PinLayout('E','B','C'); 		// EBC= or 123=...

    #ifdef NOK5110
      lcd_line3();
    #else
      lcd_line2();  // 2 row 
    #endif

    lcd_fix_string(hfe_str);		// "B="  (hFE)
    DisplayValue(trans.hfe[0],0,0,3);
    lcd_space();

    #ifdef NOK5110
      lcd_line4();
    #endif

    lcd_fix_string(Uf_str);		// "Uf="
    DisplayValue(trans.uBE[0],-3,'V',3);
    goto end;

    // end (PartFound == PART_TRANSISTOR)

  } else if (PartFound == PART_FET) {	// JFET or MOSFET

    if(PartMode&1) {
      lcd_data('P');			// P-channel
    } else {
      lcd_data('N');			// N-channel
    }
    lcd_data('-');

    tmp = PartMode/2;
    if (tmp == (PART_MODE_N_D_MOS/2)) {
      lcd_data('D');			// N-D
    }
    if (tmp == (PART_MODE_N_E_MOS/2)) {
      lcd_data('E');			// N-E
    }

    if (tmp == (PART_MODE_N_JFET/2)) {
      lcd_fix_string(jfet_str);         // "JFET"
    } else {
      lcd_fix_string(mosfet_str);       // "-MOS "
    }

    #ifdef NOK5110
      lcd_line2();
    #endif

    PinLayout('S','G','D'); 		// SGD= or 123=...

    if((NumOfDiodes > 0) && (PartMode < PART_MODE_N_D_MOS)) {
      // MOSFET with protection diode; only with enhancement-FETs

      #ifdef EBC_STYLE
        #if EBC_STYLE == 321
          // layout with 321= style
          if (((PartMode&1) && (trans.c > trans.e)) || ((!(PartMode&1)) && (trans.c < trans.e)))
        #else
          // Layout with SGD= style
          if (PartMode&1)		// N or P MOS
        #endif
      #else
        // layout with 123= style
        if (((PartMode&1) && (trans.c < trans.e)) || ((!(PartMode&1)) && (trans.c > trans.e)))
      #endif
        {
          lcd_data(LCD_CHAR_DIODE1);	// show Diode symbol >|
        } else {
          lcd_data(LCD_CHAR_DIODE2);	// show Diode symbol |<
        }
    }

    #ifdef NOK5110
      lcd_line3();
    #else
      lcd_line2();  // 2 row 
    #endif

    if(PartMode < PART_MODE_N_D_MOS) {		// enhancement-MOSFET
      // Gate capacity
      lcd_fix_string(GateCap_str);		// "C="
      ReadCapacity(trans.b,trans.e);		// measure capacity
      DisplayValue(cap.cval,cap.cpre,'F',3);

      #ifdef NOK5110
        lcd_line4();
      #endif

      lcd_fix_string(vt_str);			// "Vt="
    } else {
      lcd_data('I');
      lcd_data('=');
      DisplayValue(trans.uBE[1],-5,'A',2);

      #ifdef NOK5110
        lcd_line4();
      #endif

      lcd_fix_string(Vgs_str);			// " Vgs="
    }

    // Gate-threshold voltage
    DisplayValue(gthvoltage,-3,'V',2);
    goto end;

    // end (PartFound == PART_FET)

  } else if (PartFound == PART_THYRISTOR) {
    lcd_fix_string(Thyristor);			// "Thyristor"
    goto gakOutput;

  } else if (PartFound == PART_TRIAC) {
    lcd_fix_string(Triac);			// "Triac"
    goto gakOutput;

  } else if(PartFound == PART_RESISTOR) {
    if (ResistorsFound == 1) {		 	// single resistor
      lcd_testpin(resis[0].rb);			// Pin-number 1
      lcd_fix_string(Resistor_str);
      lcd_testpin(resis[0].ra);			// Pin-number 2
    } else {					// R-Max suchen
      ii = 0;
      if (resis[1].rx > resis[0].rx)
        ii = 1;

      if (ResistorsFound == 2) {
        ii = 2;
      } else {
        if (resis[2].rx > resis[ii].rx)
          ii = 2;
      }

      char x = '1';
      char y = '3';
      char z = '2';
   
      if (ii == 1) {
        //x = '1';
        y = '2';
        z = '3';
      }

      if (ii == 2) {
        x = '2';
        y = '1';
        z = '3';
      }

      lcd_data(x);
      lcd_fix_string(Resistor_str);    // "-[=]-"
      lcd_data(y);
      lcd_fix_string(Resistor_str);    // "-[=]-"
      lcd_data(z);
    }

    lcd_line2();  // 2 row 

    if (ResistorsFound == 1) {
      RvalOut(0);

      #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
        if (resis[0].lx != 0) {
          // resistor have also Inductance

          #ifdef NOK5110
            lcd_line3();
          #endif

          lcd_fix_string(Lis_str);				// "L="
          DisplayValue(resis[0].lx,resis[0].lpre,'H',3);	// output inductance
        }
      #endif

    } else {
      // output resistor values in right order
      if (ii == 0) {
        RvalOut(1);
        RvalOut(2);
      }
      if (ii == 1) {
        RvalOut(0);
        RvalOut(2);
      }
      if (ii == 2) {
        RvalOut(0);
        RvalOut(1);
      }
    }
    goto end;

    // end (PartFound == PART_RESISTOR)

  // capacity measurement is wanted
  } else if(PartFound == PART_CAPACITOR) {
    //lcd_fix_string(Capacitor);
    lcd_testpin(cap.ca);		// Pin number 1
    lcd_fix_string(CapZeich);		// capacitor sign
    lcd_testpin(cap.cb);		// Pin number 2

    #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
      GetVloss();			// get Voltage loss of capacitor
      if (cap.v_loss != 0) {

        #ifdef NOK5110
          lcd_line4();
        #endif

        lcd_fix_string(VLOSS_str);	// "  Vloss="
        DisplayValue(cap.v_loss,-1,'%',2);
      }
    #endif

    lcd_line2();  // 2 row 
    DisplayValue(cap.cval_max,cap.cpre_max,'F',4);

    #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
      cap.esr = GetESR(cap.cb, cap.ca);		// get ESR of capacitor
      if (cap.esr < 65530) {

        #ifdef NOK5110
          lcd_line3();
        #endif

        lcd_fix_string(ESR_str);
        DisplayValue(cap.esr,-2,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,2);
      }
    #endif

    goto end;
  }

  if(NumOfDiodes == 0) { 		// no diodes are found
    lcd_fix_string(TestFailed1); 	// "No, unknown, or"
    lcd_line2(); 			// 2 row 
    lcd_fix_string(TestFailed2); 	// "damaged "
    lcd_fix_string(Component);		// "part"
  } else {
    lcd_fix_string(Component);		// "part"
    lcd_fix_string(Unknown); 		// " unknown"
    lcd_line2(); 			// 2 row 
    lcd_fix_string(OrBroken); 		// "or damaged "
    lcd_data(NumOfDiodes + '0');
    lcd_fix_string(AnKat);		// "->|-"
  }

  empty_count++;
  mess_count = 0;
  goto end2;

gakOutput:
  lcd_line2();  // 2 row 
  PinLayout(Cathode_char,'G','A'); 	// CGA= or 123=...

//- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
end:
  empty_count = 0;		// reset counter, if part is found
  mess_count++;			// count measurements

end2:
  //ADC_DDR = (1<<TPREF) | TXD_MSK;  // switch pin with reference to GND, release relay
  ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;                 // switch pin with reference to GND, release relay
  goto start;

  while(!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN)));	// wait ,until button is released
  wait_about200ms();
  // wait 14 seconds or 5 seconds (if repeat function)

  for(gthvoltage = 0;gthvoltage<display_time;gthvoltage+=10) {
    if(!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
      // If the key is pressed again... 
      // goto start of measurement 
      goto start;
    }
    wdt_reset();
    wait_about10ms();
  }

  #ifdef POWER_OFF
    #if POWER_OFF > 127
      #define POWER2_OFF 255
    #else
      #define POWER2_OFF POWER_OFF*2
    #endif

    #if POWER_OFF+0 > 1
      if ((empty_count < POWER_OFF) && (mess_count < POWER2_OFF)) {
        goto start;			// repeat measurement POWER_OFF times
      }
    #endif

    // only one Measurement requested, shut off
    //MCUSR = 0;
    ON_PORT &= ~(1<<ON_PIN);		// switch off power
    // never ending loop 
    while(1) {
      if(!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
        // The statement is only reached if no auto off equipment is installed
        goto start;
      }
      wdt_reset();
      wait_about10ms();
    }

  #else
    goto start;  // POWER_OFF not selected, repeat measurement
  #endif

  return;
} // end main


//******************************************************************
// output of flux voltage for 1-2 diodes in row 2
// bcdnum = Numbers of both Diodes:
// higher 4 Bit  number of first Diode
// lower 4 Bit  number of second Diode (Structure diodes[nn])
// if number >= 3  no output is done
void UfOutput(uint8_t bcdnum) {
  lcd_line2(); 				// 2 row
  lcd_fix_string(Uf_str);		// "Uf="
  mVOutput(bcdnum >> 4);
  mVOutput(bcdnum & 0x0f);
}

void mVOutput(uint8_t nn) {
  if (nn < 3) {
    // Output in mV units
    DisplayValue(diodes[nn].Voltage,-3,'V',3);
    lcd_space();
  }
}

void RvalOut(uint8_t ii) {	
  // output of resistor value

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    uint16_t rr;
    if ((resis[ii].rx < 100) && (resis[0].lx == 0)) {
      rr = GetESR(resis[ii].ra,resis[ii].rb);
      DisplayValue(rr,-2,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,3);
    } else {
      DisplayValue(resis[ii].rx,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4);
    }
  #else
    DisplayValue(resis[ii].rx,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4);
  #endif

  lcd_space();
}

//******************************************************************

void ChargePin10ms(uint8_t PinToCharge, uint8_t ChargeDirection) {
  // Load the specified pin to the specified direction with 680 Ohm for 10ms.
  // Will be used by discharge of MOSFET Gates or to load big capacities.
  // Parameters:
  // PinToCharge: specifies the pin as mask for R-Port
  // ChargeDirection: 0 = switch to GND (N-Kanal-FET), 1= switch to VCC(P-Kanal-FET)

  if(ChargeDirection&1) {
    R_PORT |= PinToCharge;	// R_PORT to 1 (VCC) 
  } else {
    R_PORT &= ~PinToCharge; 	// or 0 (GND)
  }

  R_DDR |= PinToCharge;			// switch Pin to output, across R to GND or VCC
  wait_about10ms();			// wait about 10ms
  // switch back Input, no current
  R_DDR &= ~PinToCharge;		// switch back to input
  R_PORT &= ~PinToCharge;		// no Pull up
}


// first discharge any charge of capacitors
void EntladePins() {
  uint8_t adc_gnd;		// Mask of ADC-outputs, which can be directly connected to GND
  unsigned int adcmv[3];	// voltages of 3 Pins in mV
  unsigned int clr_cnt;		// Clear Counter
  uint8_t lop_cnt;		// loop counter

  // max. time of discharge in ms  (10000/20) == 10s
  #define MAX_ENTLADE_ZEIT  (10000/20)

  for(lop_cnt=0;lop_cnt<10;lop_cnt++) {
    adc_gnd = TXD_MSK;		// put all ADC to Input
    ADC_DDR = adc_gnd;
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// ADC-outputs auf 0
    R_PORT = 0;			// R-outputs auf 0
    R_DDR = (2<<(TP3*2)) | (2<<(TP2*2)) | (2<<(TP1*2));  // R_H for all Pins to GND

    adcmv[0] = W5msReadADC(TP1);	// which voltage has Pin 1?
    adcmv[1] = ReadADC(TP2);		// which voltage has Pin 2?
    adcmv[2] = ReadADC(TP3);		// which voltage has Pin 3?

    if ((PartFound == PART_CELL) || (adcmv[0] < CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL) 
                                  & (adcmv[1] < CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL) 
                                  & (adcmv[2] < CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL)) {
      ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;		// switch all ADC-Pins to input
      R_DDR = 0;			// switch all R_L Ports (and R_H) to input
      return;				// all is discharged
    }

    // all Pins with voltage lower than 1V can be connected directly to GND (ADC-Port)
    if (adcmv[0] < 1000) {
      adc_gnd |= (1<<TP1);	// Pin 1 directly to GND
    }
    if (adcmv[1] < 1000) {
      adc_gnd |= (1<<TP2);	// Pin 2 directly to GND
    }
    if (adcmv[2] < 1000) {
      adc_gnd |= (1<<TP3);	// Pin 3 directly to  GND
    }
    ADC_DDR = adc_gnd;		// switch all selected ADC-Ports at the same time

    // additionally switch the leaving Ports with R_L to GND.
    // since there is no disadvantage for the already directly switched pins, we can
    // simply switch all  R_L resistors to GND
    R_DDR = (1<<(TP3*2)) | (1<<(TP2*2)) | (1<<(TP1*2));	// Pins across R_L resistors to GND

    for(clr_cnt=0;clr_cnt<MAX_ENTLADE_ZEIT;clr_cnt++) {
      wdt_reset();
      adcmv[0] = W20msReadADC(TP1);	// which voltage has Pin 1?
      adcmv[1] = ReadADC(TP2);		// which voltage has Pin 2?
      adcmv[2] = ReadADC(TP3);		// which voltage has Pin 3?

      if (adcmv[0] < 1300) {
         ADC_DDR |= (1<<TP1);	// below 1.3V , switch directly with ADC-Port to GND
      }
      if (adcmv[1] < 1300) {
         ADC_DDR |= (1<<TP2);	// below 1.3V, switch directly with ADC-Port to GND
      }
      if (adcmv[2] < 1300) {
         ADC_DDR |= (1<<TP3);	// below 1.3V, switch directly with ADC-Port to GND
      }
      if ((adcmv[0] < (CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL+2)) && (adcmv[1] < (CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL+2)) && (adcmv[2] < (CAP_EMPTY_LEVEL+2))) {
         break;
      }
    }

    if (clr_cnt == MAX_ENTLADE_ZEIT) {
      PartFound = PART_CELL;		// mark as Battery
      // there is charge on capacitor, warn later!
    }

    for(adcmv[0]=0;adcmv[0]<clr_cnt;adcmv[0]++) {
      // for safety, discharge 5% of discharge  time
      wait1ms();
    }
  }  // end for lop_cnt
}


#ifdef AUTO_RH
void RefVoltage(void) {
// RefVoltage interpolates table RHtab corresponding to voltage ref_mv .
// RHtab contain the factors to get capacity from load time with 470k for
// different Band gab reference voltages.
// for remember:
// resistor     470000 Ohm      1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400  mV
// uint16_t RHTAB[] MEM_TEXT = { 954, 903, 856, 814, 775, 740, 707, 676, 648};

  #define Ref_Tab_Abstand 50		// displacement of table is 50mV
  #define Ref_Tab_Beginn 1000		// begin of table is 1000mV

  unsigned int referenz;
  unsigned int y1, y2;
  uint8_t tabind;
  uint8_t tabres;

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    referenz = ref_mv + (int16_t)eeprom_read_word((uint16_t *)(&ref_offset));
  #else
    referenz = ref_mv + REF_C_KORR;
  #endif

  if (referenz >= Ref_Tab_Beginn) {
    referenz -= Ref_Tab_Beginn;
  } else {
    referenz = 0;	// limit to begin of table
  }

  tabind = referenz / Ref_Tab_Abstand;
  tabres = referenz % Ref_Tab_Abstand;
  tabres = Ref_Tab_Abstand-tabres;

  if (tabind > 7) {
    tabind = 7;		// limit to end of table
  }

  // interpolate the table of factors
  y1 = pgm_read_word(&RHtab[tabind]);
  y2 = pgm_read_word(&RHtab[tabind+1]);
  // RHmultip is the interpolated factor to compute capacity from load time with 470k
  RHmultip = ((y1 - y2) * tabres + (Ref_Tab_Abstand/2)) / Ref_Tab_Abstand + y2;
}
#endif

#ifdef LCD_CLEAR
void lcd_clear_line(void) {
  // writes 20 spaces to LCD-Display, Cursor must be positioned to first column
  unsigned char ll;
  for (ll=0;ll<20;ll++) {
    lcd_space();
  }
}
#endif


/* ************************************************************************
 *   display of values and units
 * ************************************************************************ */
/*
 *  display value and unit
 *  - max. 4 digits excluding "." and unit
 *
 *  requires:
 *  - value
 *  - exponent of factor related to base unit (value * 10^x)
 *    e.g: p = 10^-12 -> -12
 *  - unit character (0 = none)
 *  digits = 2, 3 or 4
 */
void DisplayValue(unsigned long Value, int8_t Exponent, unsigned char Unit, unsigned char digits)
{
  char OutBuffer[15];
  unsigned int      Limit;
  unsigned char     Prefix;		// prefix character
  uint8_t           Offset;		// exponent of offset to next 10^3 step
  uint8_t           Index;		// index ID
  uint8_t           Length;		// string length

  Limit = 100;				// scale value down to 2 digits
  if (digits == 3) Limit = 1000;	// scale value down to 3 digits
  if (digits == 4) Limit = 10000;	// scale value down to 4 digits

  while (Value >= Limit)
  {
    Value += 5;				// for automatic rounding
    Value = Value / 10;			// scale down by 10^1
    Exponent++;				// increase exponent by 1
  }

  // determine prefix

  Length = Exponent + 12;
  if ((int8_t)Length <  0) Length = 0;	// Limit to minimum prefix
  if (Length > 18) Length = 18;		// Limit to maximum prefix
  Index = Length / 3;
  Offset = Length % 3;

  if (Offset > 0)
    {
      Index++;				// adjust index for exponent offset, take next prefix
      Offset = 3 - Offset;		// reverse value (1 or 2)
    }

  #ifdef NO_NANO
    if (Index == 1)
      { // use no nano
        Index++;			// use mikro instead of nano
        Offset += 3;			// can be 3,4 or 5
      }
  #endif

  Prefix = MEM_read_byte((uint8_t *)(&PrefixTab[Index]));   // look up prefix in table

  // display value

  // convert value into string
  utoa((unsigned int)Value, OutBuffer, 10);
  Length = strlen(OutBuffer);

  // position of dot
  Exponent = Length - Offset;		// calculate position

  if (Exponent <= 0)			// we have to prepend "0."
  {
    // 0: factor 10 / -1: factor 100
    //lcd_data('0');
    lcd_data('.');

    #ifdef NO_NANO
      while (Exponent < 0)
        {
          lcd_data('0');		// extra 0 for factor 10
          Exponent++;
        }
    #else
      if (Exponent < 0) lcd_data('0');	// extra 0 for factor 100
    #endif
  }

  if (Offset == 0) Exponent = -1;	// disable dot if not needed

  // adjust position to array or disable dot if set to 0
  //Exponent--;

  // display value and add dot if requested
  Index = 0;
  while (Index < Length)		// loop through string
  {
    lcd_data(OutBuffer[Index]);		// display char
    Index++;				// next one
    if (Index == Exponent) {
      lcd_data('.');			// display dot
    }
  }

  // display prefix and unit
  if (Prefix != 0) lcd_data(Prefix);
  if (Unit) lcd_data(Unit);
}


#ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
// set the processor to sleep state
// wake up will be done with compare match interrupt of counter 2
void sleep_5ms(uint16_t pause){
  // pause is the delay in 5ms units
  uint8_t t2_offset;

  #define RESTART_DELAY_US (RESTART_DELAY_TICS/(F_CPU/1000000UL))
  // for 8 MHz crystal the Restart delay is 16384/8 = 2048us

  while (pause > 0) {

    #if 3000 > RESTART_DELAY_US
      if (pause > 1) {
        // Startup time is too long with 1MHz Clock!!!!
        t2_offset = (10000 - RESTART_DELAY_US) / T2_PERIOD;	// set to 10ms above the actual counter
        pause -= 2;
      } else {
        t2_offset = (5000 - RESTART_DELAY_US) / T2_PERIOD;	// set to 5ms above the actual counter
        pause = 0;
      }

      OCR2A = TCNT2 + t2_offset;			// set the compare value
      TIMSK2 = (0<<OCIE2B) | (1<<OCIE2A) | (0<<TOIE2);  // enable output compare match A interrupt

      set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_PWR_SAVE);
      //set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_IDLE);
      sleep_mode();
      // wake up after output compare match interrupt
    #else
      // restart delay ist too long, use normal delay of 5ms
      wait5ms();
    #endif

    wdt_reset();
  }

  TIMSK2 = (0<<OCIE2B) | (0<<OCIE2A) | (0<<TOIE2);  // disable output compare match A interrupt
}
#endif


// show the Pin Layout of the device 
void PinLayout(char pin1, char pin2, char pin3) {
  // pin1-3 is EBC or SGD or CGA
  #ifndef EBC_STYLE
    // Layout with 123= style
    lcd_fix_string(N123_str);			// " 123="
    for (ii=0;ii<3;ii++) {
      if (ii == trans.e)  lcd_data(pin1);	// Output Character in right order
      if (ii == trans.b)  lcd_data(pin2);
      if (ii == trans.c)  lcd_data(pin3);
    }
  #else
    #if EBC_STYLE == 321
      // Layout with 321= style
      lcd_fix_string(N321_str);			// " 321="
      ii = 3;
      while (ii != 0) {
        ii--;
        if (ii == trans.e)  lcd_data(pin1);	// Output Character in right order
        if (ii == trans.b)  lcd_data(pin2);
        if (ii == trans.c)  lcd_data(pin3);
      }
    #else 
      // Layout with EBC= style
      lcd_space();
      lcd_data(pin1);
      lcd_data(pin2);
      lcd_data(pin3);
      lcd_data('=');
      lcd_testpin(trans.e);
      lcd_testpin(trans.b);
      lcd_testpin(trans.c);
    #endif
  #endif
}

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

void AutoCheck(void) {
#ifdef WITH_SELFTEST

  uint8_t tt;		// number of running test
  uint8_t ww;		// counter for repeating the tests
  int  adcmv[7];
  uint16_t u680;	// 3 * (Voltage at 680 Ohm)

  // define the maximum count of repetitions MAX_REP
  #define MAX_REP 4

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    uint8_t cap_found;	// counter for found capacitor

    #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
      int8_t udiff;		// difference between ADC Voltage with VCC or Bandgap reference
      int8_t udiff2;
    #endif
  #endif

  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;
  ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;

  #define RequireShortedProbes

  if (AllProbesShorted() != 3) return;

  lcd_clear();
  lcd_fix_string(SELFTEST);		// "Selftest mode.."

  lcd_line2();
  lcd_fix2_string(R0_str);		// "R0="

  eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[2]), (int8_t)0);	// clear zero offset
  eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[3]), (int8_t)0);	// clear zero offset
  eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[1]), (int8_t)0);	// clear zero offset

  adcmv[0] = GetESR(TP3, TP1);
  adcmv[1] = GetESR(TP3, TP2);
  adcmv[2] = GetESR(TP2, TP1);

  DisplayValue(adcmv[0],-2,' ',3);
  DisplayValue(adcmv[1],-2,' ',3);
  DisplayValue(adcmv[2],-2,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,3);

  if (adcmv[0] < 60) {
    eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[2]), (int8_t)adcmv[0]);	// fix zero offset
  }
  if (adcmv[1] < 60) {
    eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[3]), (int8_t)adcmv[1]);	// fix zero offset
  }
  if (adcmv[2] < 60) {
    eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[1]), (int8_t)adcmv[2]);	// fix zero offset
  }

  for(tt=0; tt<12; tt++) {
    wait_about500ms();

    if(!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
      // if key is pressed, don't repeat
      break;
    }
  }   // end for tt

  #define TEST_COUNT 8
 
  for(tt=1; tt<TEST_COUNT; tt++) {	// loop for all Tests
    for(ww=0; ww<MAX_REP; ww++) {	// repeat the test MAX_REP times
      lcd_line2();			// Cursor to column 1, row 2
      lcd_clear_line();			// clear total line
      lcd_line1();			// Cursor to column 1, row 1
      lcd_clear_line();			// clear total line
      lcd_line1();			// Cursor to column 1, row 1
      lcd_data('T');			// output the Testmode "T"
      lcd_string(utoa(tt, outval, 10));	// output Test number
      lcd_space();

      if (tt == 1) {		// output of reference voltage and factors for capacity measurement
        Calibrate_UR();		// get Reference voltage, Pin resistance
        lcd_fix2_string(URefT);	// "URef="
        DisplayValue(ref_mv,-3,'V',4);
        lcd_line2();				// Cursor to column 1, row 2
        lcd_fix2_string(RHfakt);		// "RHf="
        lcd_string(utoa(RHmultip, outval, 10));
        ADCconfig.Samples = 190;		// set number of ADC reads near to maximum
      }

      if (tt == 2) { 	// how equal are the RL resistors? 
        u680 = ((long)ADCconfig.U_AVCC * (PIN_RM + R_L_VAL) / (PIN_RM + R_L_VAL + R_L_VAL + PIN_RP));
        R_PORT = 1<<(TP1*2);			// RL1 to VCC
        R_DDR = (1<<(TP1*2)) | (1<<(TP2*2));	// RL2 to -
        adcmv[0] = W20msReadADC(TP1);
        adcmv[0] -= u680;
        R_DDR = (1<<(TP1*2)) | (1<<(TP3*2));	// RL3 to -
        adcmv[1] = W20msReadADC(TP1);
        adcmv[1] -= u680;
        R_PORT = 1<<(TP2*2);			// RL2 to VCC
        R_DDR = (1<<(TP2*2)) | (1<<(TP3*2));	// RL3 to -
        adcmv[2] = W20msReadADC(TP2);
        adcmv[2] -= u680;
        lcd_fix_string(RLRL);			// "RLRL"
      }

      if (tt == 3) { 	// how equal are the RH resistors
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP1*2);			// RH1 to VCC
        R_DDR = (2<<(TP1*2)) | (2<<(TP2*2));	// RH2 to -
        adcmv[0] = W20msReadADC(TP1);
        adcmv[3] = ADCconfig.U_AVCC / 2;
        adcmv[0] -= adcmv[3];
        R_DDR = (2<<(TP1*2)) | (2<<(TP3*2));	// RH3 to -
        adcmv[1] = W20msReadADC(TP1);
        adcmv[1] -= adcmv[3];
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP2*2);			// RH2 to VCC
        R_DDR = (2<<(TP2*2)) | (2<<(TP3*2));	// RH3 to -
        adcmv[2] = W20msReadADC(TP2);
        adcmv[2] -= adcmv[3];
        lcd_fix_string(RHRH);			// "RHRH"
      }

      if (tt == 4) { 	// Text release probes
        lcd_fix_string(RELPROBE);		// "Release Probes"
        if (AllProbesShorted() != 0) ww = MAX_REP-2;
      }

      if (tt == 5) { 	// can we switch the ADC pins to GND across R_H resistor?
        R_PORT = 0;
        R_DDR = 2<<(TP1*2);		// Pin 1 over R_H to GND
        adcmv[0] = W20msReadADC(TP1);

        R_DDR = 2<<(TP2*2);		// Pin 2 over R_H to GND
        adcmv[1] = W20msReadADC(TP2);

        R_DDR = 2<<(TP3*2);		// Pin 3 over R_H to GND
        adcmv[2] = W20msReadADC(TP3);
        lcd_fix_string(RH1L);		// "RH_Lo="
      }

      if (tt == 6) { 	// can we switch the ADC pins to VCC across the R_H resistor?
        R_DDR = 2<<(TP1*2);		// Pin 1 over R_H to VCC
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP1*2);
        adcmv[0] = W20msReadADC(TP1) - ADCconfig.U_AVCC;
        R_DDR = 2<<(TP2*2);		// Pin 2 over R_H to VCC
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP2*2);
        adcmv[1] = W20msReadADC(TP2) - ADCconfig.U_AVCC;
        R_DDR = 2<<(TP3*2);		// Pin 3 over R_H to VCC
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP3*2);
        adcmv[2] = W20msReadADC(TP3) - ADCconfig.U_AVCC;
        lcd_fix_string(RH1H);		// "RH_Hi="
      }

      if (tt == 7) { 	// can we switch the ADC pins to VCC across the R_H resistor?
        u680 = ((long)ADCconfig.U_AVCC * (PIN_RM + R_L_VAL) / (PIN_RM + R_L_VAL + R_H_VAL*100));
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP1*2);			// RH1 to VCC
        R_DDR = (2<<(TP1*2)) | (1<<(TP1*2));	// RH1 to +, RL1 to -
        adcmv[0] = W20msReadADC(TP1);
        adcmv[0] -= u680;
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP2*2);			// RH2 to VCC
        R_DDR = (2<<(TP2*2)) | (1<<(TP2*2));	// RH2 to +, RL2 to -
        adcmv[1] = W20msReadADC(TP2);
        adcmv[1] -= u680;
        R_PORT = 2<<(TP3*2);			// RH3 to VCC
        R_DDR = (2<<(TP3*2)) | (1<<(TP3*2));	// RH3 to +, RL3 to -
        adcmv[2] = W20msReadADC(TP3);
        adcmv[2] -= u680;
        lcd_fix_string(RHRL);			// "RH/RL"
      }

      if (tt > 1) {	// output 3 voltages 
        lcd_line2();				// Cursor to column 1, row 2
        lcd_string(itoa(adcmv[0], outval, 10));	// output voltage 1
        lcd_space();
        lcd_string(itoa(adcmv[1], outval, 10));	// output voltage 2
        lcd_space();
        lcd_string(itoa(adcmv[2], outval, 10));	// output voltage 3
      }

        ADC_DDR =  TXD_MSK;		// all-Pins to Input
        ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// all ADC-Ports to GND
        R_DDR = 0;			// all R-Ports to Input
        R_PORT = 0;

      if(!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
        // if key is pressed, don't repeat
        break;
      }
      wait_about500ms();

      if(!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
        // if key is pressed, don't repeat
        break;
      }
      wait_about500ms();

    }  // end for ww
    wait_about1s();

  }  // end for tt

  lcd_clear();
  lcd_fix_string(RIHI);				// "RiHi="
  DisplayValue(RRpinPL,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,3);
  lcd_line2();
  lcd_fix_string(RILO);				// "RiLo="
  DisplayValue(RRpinMI,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,3);
  wait_about2s();

  //measure Zero offset for Capacity measurement
  adcmv[3] = 0;
  PartFound = PART_NONE;
  ReadCapacity(TP3, TP1);
  adcmv[5] = (unsigned int) cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// save capacity value of empty Pin 1:3
  ReadCapacity(TP3, TP2);
  adcmv[6] = (unsigned int) cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// save capacity value of empty Pin 2:3
  ReadCapacity(TP2, TP1);
  adcmv[2] = (unsigned int) cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// save capacity value of empty Pin 1:2
  ReadCapacity(TP1, TP3);
  adcmv[1] = (unsigned int) cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// save capacity value of empty Pin 3:1
  ReadCapacity(TP2, TP3);
  adcmv[4] = (unsigned int) cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// save capacity value of empty Pin 3:2
  ReadCapacity(TP1, TP2);
  adcmv[0] = (unsigned int) cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// save capacity value of empty Pin 2:1

  lcd_clear();
  lcd_fix_string(C0_str);			// output "C0 "
  DisplayValue(adcmv[5],0,' ',3);		// output cap0 1:3
  DisplayValue(adcmv[6],0,' ',3);		// output cap0 2:3
  DisplayValue(adcmv[2],-12,'F',3);		// output cap0 1:2

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    for (ww=0;ww<7;ww++) {
      if (adcmv[ww] > 70) goto no_c0save;
    }

    for (ww=0;ww<7;ww++) {
      // write all zero offsets to the EEprom 
      (void) eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&c_zero_tab[ww]),adcmv[ww]+(COMP_SLEW1 / (CC0 + CABLE_CAP + COMP_SLEW2)));
    }

    lcd_line2();
    lcd_fix_string(OK_str);		// output "OK"

no_c0save:
  #endif

  wait_about2s();
 
  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    // Message C > 100nF
    cap_found = 0;
    for (ww=0; ww<64; ww++) {
      lcd_clear();
      lcd_data('1');
      lcd_fix_string(CapZeich);		// "-||-"
      lcd_data('3');
      lcd_fix2_string(MinCap_str);	// " >100nF!"

      PartFound = PART_NONE;
      // measure  offset Voltage of analog Comparator for Capacity measurement
      ReadCapacity(TP3, TP1);		// look for capacitor > 100nF

      while (cap.cpre < -9) {
        cap.cpre++;
        cap.cval /= 10;
      }

      if ((cap.cpre == -9) && (cap.cval > 95) && (cap.cval < 22000)) {
        cap_found++;
      } else {
        cap_found = 0;		// wait for stable connection
      }

      if (cap_found > 1) {
        // value of capacitor is correct
        (void) eeprom_write_word((uint16_t *)(&ref_offset), load_diff);	// hold zero offset + slew rate dependend offset
        lcd_clear();
        lcd_fix2_string(REF_C_str);			// "REF_C="
        lcd_string(itoa(load_diff, outval, 10));	// output REF_C_KORR

        #if 0
          // Test for switching level of the digital input of port TP3

          for (ii=0;ii<8;ii++) {
            ADC_PORT =  TXD_VAL;		// ADC-Port 1 to GND
            ADC_DDR = 1<<TP1 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin  1 to output 0V
            R_PORT = 2<<(TP3*2);		// Pin 3 over R_H to VCC
            R_DDR = 2<<(TP3*2);			// Pin 3 over R_H to VCC

            while (1) {
              wdt_reset();
              if ((ADC_PIN&(1<<TP3)) == (1<<TP3)) break;
            }

            R_DDR = 0;				// Pin 3 without current
            R_PORT = 0;
            adcmv[0] = ReadADC(TP3);
            lcd_line3();
            DisplayValue(adcmv[0],-3,'V',4);
            R_DDR = 2<<(TP3*2);			// Pin 3 over R_H to GND

            while (1) {
              wdt_reset();
              if ((ADC_PIN&(1<<TP3)) != (1<<TP3)) break;
            }

            R_DDR = 0;				// Pin 3 without current
            lcd_line4();
            adcmv[0] = ReadADC(TP3);
            DisplayValue(adcmv[0],-3,'V',4);
            wait_about1s();
          }
        #endif

        #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
          ADC_PORT =  TXD_VAL;			// ADC-Port 1 to GND
          ADC_DDR = 1<<TP1 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin  1 to output 0V
          R_DDR = 2<<(TP3*2);			// Pin 3 over R_H to GND

          do {
            adcmv[0] = ReadADC(TP3);
          } while (adcmv[0] > 980);

          R_DDR = 0;				// all Pins to input 

          ADCconfig.U_Bandgap = 0;		// do not use internal Ref
          adcmv[0] = ReadADC(TP3);  		// get cap voltage with VCC reference
          ADCconfig.U_Bandgap = ADC_internal_reference;
          adcmv[1] = ReadADC(TP3);		// get cap voltage with internal reference
          ADCconfig.U_Bandgap = 0;		// do not use internal Ref
          adcmv[2] = ReadADC(TP3);  		// get cap voltage with VCC reference
          ADCconfig.U_Bandgap = ADC_internal_reference;

          udiff = (int8_t)(((signed long)(adcmv[0] + adcmv[2] - adcmv[1] - adcmv[1])) * ADC_internal_reference / (2*adcmv[1]))+REF_R_KORR;

          lcd_line2();
          lcd_fix2_string(REF_R_str);		// "REF_R="

          udiff2 = udiff + (int8_t)eeprom_read_byte((uint8_t *)(&RefDiff));
          (void) eeprom_write_byte((uint8_t *)(&RefDiff), (uint8_t)udiff2);	// hold offset for true reference Voltage

          lcd_string(itoa(udiff2, outval, 10));	// output correction voltage
        #endif

        wait_about4s();
        break;
      }

      lcd_line2();
      DisplayValue(cap.cval,cap.cpre,'F',4);
      wait_about200ms();			// wait additional time

    }  // end for ww
  #endif

  ADCconfig.Samples = ANZ_MESS;		// set to configured number of ADC samples

  lcd_clear();
  lcd_line2();
  lcd_fix2_string(VERSION_str);		// "Version ..."
  lcd_line1();
  lcd_fix_string(ATE);			// "Selftest End"

  #ifdef FREQUENCY_50HZ
    //#define TEST_SLEEP_MODE		// only select for checking the sleep delay
    lcd_fix_string(T50HZ);		// " 50Hz"
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;
    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP1 | TXD_MSK;		// Pin 1 to GND
    R_DDR = (1<<(TP3*2)) | (1<<(TP2*2));

    for(ww=0;ww<30;ww++) {		// repeat the signal up to 30 times (1 minute)
      for (ii=0;ii<100;ii++) {		// for 2 s generate 50 Hz
        R_PORT = (1<<(TP2*2));		// Pin 2 over R_L to VCC, Pin 3 over R_L to GND

        #ifdef TEST_SLEEP_MODE
          sleep_5ms(2); 		// test of timing of sleep mode call 
        #else
          wait10ms();			// normal delay
        #endif

        R_PORT = (1<<(TP3*2));		// Pin 3 over R_L to VCC, Pin 2 over R_L to GND

        #ifdef TEST_SLEEP_MODE
          sleep_5ms(2); 		// test of timing of sleep mode call 
        #else
          wait10ms();			// normal delay
        #endif

        wdt_reset();
      }

      if (!(ON_PIN_REG & (1<<RST_PIN))) {
        // if key is pressed, don't repeat
        break;
      }
    }
  #endif

  PartFound = PART_NONE;
  wait_about1s();
#endif
} 

 
#ifdef RequireShortedProbes
/*
 *  check for a short circuit between two probes
 *  from Markus R.
 *
 *  requires:
 *  - ID of first probe (0-2)
 *  - ID of second probe (0-2)
 *
 *  returns:
 *  - 0 if not shorted
 *  - 1 if shorted
 */

uint8_t ShortedProbes(uint8_t Probe1, uint8_t Probe2)
{
  uint8_t           Flag1 = 0;  // return value
  unsigned int      U1; 	// voltage at probe #1 in mV
  unsigned int      U2; 	// voltage at probe #2 in mV
  unsigned int      URH;	// half of reference voltage

  // Set up a voltage divider between the two probes:
  // - Probe1: Rl pull-up
  // - Probe2: Rl pull-down

  R_PORT = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[Probe1]);
  R_DDR = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[Probe1]) | pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[Probe2]);

  // read voltages
  U1 = ReadADC(Probe1);
  U2 = ReadADC(Probe2);

  // We expect both probe voltages to be about the same and
  // to be half of Vcc (allowed difference +/- 20mV).

  URH = ADCconfig.U_AVCC / 2;
  if ((U1 > URH - 20) && (U1 < URH + 20))
  {
    if ((U2 > URH - 20) && (U2 < URH + 20))
    {
      Flag1 = 1;
    }
  }

  // reset port
  R_DDR = 0;

  return Flag1;
}

/*
 *  check for a short circuit between all probes
 *  from Markus R.
 *
 *  returns:
 *  - 0 if no probes are short-circuited
 *  - number of probe pairs short-circuited (3 = all)
 */

uint8_t AllProbesShorted(void)
{
  uint8_t Flag2;      // return value

  // check all possible combinations
  Flag2 = ShortedProbes(TP1, TP2);
  Flag2 += ShortedProbes(TP1, TP3);
  Flag2 += ShortedProbes(TP2, TP3);

  return Flag2;
}
#endif

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

//******************************************************************
void CheckPins(uint8_t HighPin, uint8_t LowPin, uint8_t TristatePin) {
  /*
  Function for checking the characteristic of a component with the following pin assignment 
  parameters:
  HighPin: Pin, which will be switched to VCC at the beginning
  LowPin: Pin, which will be switch to GND at the beginning
  TristatePin: Pin, which will be undefined at the beginning
  TristatePin will be switched to GND and VCC also .
  */
  struct {
    unsigned int lp_otr;
    unsigned int hp1;
    unsigned int hp2;
    unsigned int hp3;
    unsigned int lp1;
    unsigned int lp2;
    unsigned int tp1;
    unsigned int tp2;
  } adc;
  uint8_t LoPinRL;		// mask to switch the LowPin with R_L
  uint8_t LoPinRH;		// mask to switch the LowPin with R_H
  uint8_t TriPinRL;		// mask to switch the TristatePin with R_L
  uint8_t TriPinRH;		// mask to switch the TristatePin with R_H
  uint8_t HiPinRL;		// mask to switch the HighPin with RL
  uint8_t HiPinRH;		// mask to switch the HighPin with R_H
  uint8_t HiADCp;		// mask to switch the ADC port High-Pin
  uint8_t LoADCp;		// mask to switch the ADC port Low-Pin
  uint8_t HiADCm;		// mask to switch the ADC DDR port High-Pin
  uint8_t LoADCm;		// mask to switch the ADC DDR port Low-Pin
  uint8_t PinMSK;
  uint8_t ii;			// temporary variable

  #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
    unsigned int tmp16;		// temporary variable
  #else
    #warning "without common emitter hFE"
  #endif

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    int udiff;
  #endif

  #ifdef COMMON_COLLECTOR
    unsigned long c_hfe;	// amplification factor for common Collector (Emitter follower)
  #endif

  struct resis_t *thisR;
  unsigned long lrx1;
  unsigned long lirx1;
  unsigned long lirx2;

  /*
    switch HighPin directls to VCC 
    switch R_L port for LowPin to GND 
    TristatePin remains switched to input , no action required 
  */

  wdt_reset();
  //#ifdef AUTO_CAL
  //  uint16_t resis680pl;
  //  uint16_t resis680mi;
  //  resis680pl = eeprom_read_word(&R680pl);
  //  resis680mi = eeprom_read_word(&R680mi);
  //  #define RR680PL resis680pl
  //  #define RR680MI resis680mi
  //#else
  //  #define RR680PL (R_L_VAL + PIN_RP)
  //  #define RR680MI (R_L_VAL + PIN_RM)
  //#endif

  LoPinRL = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[LowPin]);		// instruction for LowPin R_L
  LoPinRH = LoPinRL + LoPinRL;				// instruction for LowPin R_H
  TriPinRL = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[TristatePin]);	// instruction for TristatePin R_L
  TriPinRH = TriPinRL + TriPinRL;			// instruction for TristatePin R_H
  HiPinRL = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[HighPin]);		// instruction for HighPin R_L
  HiPinRH = HiPinRL + HiPinRL;				// instruction for HighPin R_H

  HiADCp = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[HighPin]);		// instruction for ADC High-Pin 
  LoADCp = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[LowPin]);		// instruction for ADC Low-Pin
  HiADCm = HiADCp | TXD_MSK;
  HiADCp |= TXD_VAL;
  LoADCm = LoADCp | TXD_MSK;
  LoADCp |= TXD_VAL;

  // setting of Pins 
  R_PORT = 0;				// resistor-Port outputs to 0
  R_DDR = LoPinRL;			// Low-Pin to output and across R_L to GND
  ADC_DDR = HiADCm;			// High-Pin to output
  ADC_PORT = HiADCp;			// High-Pin fix to Vcc

  // for some MOSFET the gate (TristatePin) must be discharged
  ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,0);		// discharge for N-Kanal
  adc.lp_otr = W5msReadADC(LowPin);	// read voltage of Low-Pin 
  if (adc.lp_otr >= 977) {		// no current now? 
    ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,1);	 	// else: discharge for P-channel (Gate to VCC)
    adc.lp_otr = ReadADC(LowPin);	// read voltage of Low-Pin again
  }

  #if DebugOut == 5
    lcd_line2();
    lcd_clear_line();
    lcd_line2();
  #endif

  //if(adc.lp_otr > 92) {  // there is some current without TristatePin current 
  if(adc.lp_otr > 455) {   // there is more than 650uA current without TristatePin current 
    #if DebugOut == 5
      lcd_testpin(LowPin);
      lcd_data('F');
      lcd_testpin(HighPin);
      lcd_space();
      wait_about1s();
    #endif

    // Test if N-JFET or if self-conducting N-MOSFET
    R_DDR = LoPinRL | TriPinRH;		// switch R_H for Tristate-Pin (probably Gate) to GND
    adc.lp1 = W20msReadADC(LowPin);	// measure voltage at the assumed Source 
    adc.tp1 = ReadADC(TristatePin);	// measure Gate voltage
    R_PORT = TriPinRH;			// switch R_H for Tristate-Pin (probably Gate) to VCC
    adc.lp2 = W20msReadADC(LowPin);	// measure voltage at the assumed Source again

    // If it is a self-conducting MOSFET or JFET, then must be: adc.lp2 > adc.lp1 
    if (adc.lp2>(adc.lp1+488)) {
      if (PartFound != PART_FET) {
        // measure voltage at the  Gate, differ between MOSFET and JFET
        ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;
        ADC_DDR = LoADCm;		// Low-Pin fix to GND
        R_DDR = TriPinRH | HiPinRL;	// High-Pin to output
        R_PORT = TriPinRH | HiPinRL;	// switch R_L for High-Pin to VCC
        adc.lp2 = W20msReadADC(TristatePin); // read voltage of assumed Gate 

        if (adc.lp2>3911) {  		// MOSFET
          PartFound = PART_FET;		// N-Kanal-MOSFET
          PartMode = PART_MODE_N_D_MOS; // Depletion-MOSFET
        } else {  // JFET (pn-passage between Gate and Source is conducting )
          PartFound = PART_FET;		// N-Kanal-JFET
          PartMode = PART_MODE_N_JFET;
        }

        #if DebugOut == 5
          lcd_data('N');
          lcd_data('J');
        #endif

        //if ((PartReady == 0) || (adc.lp1 > trans.uBE[0])) 
        // there is no way to find out the right Source / Drain
        trans.uBE[0] = adc.lp1;
        gthvoltage = adc.lp1 - adc.tp1;	// voltage GS (Source - Gate)
        trans.uBE[1] = (unsigned int)(((unsigned long)adc.lp1 * 1000) / RR680MI);  // Id 0.01mA
        trans.b = TristatePin;		// save Pin numbers found for this FET
        trans.c = HighPin;
        trans.e = LowPin;
      }
    }

    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// direct outputs to GND

    // Test, if P-JFET or if self-conducting P-MOSFET
    ADC_DDR = LoADCm;			// switch Low-Pin (assumed Drain) direct to GND,
					// R_H for Tristate-Pin (assumed Gate) is already switched to VCC
    R_DDR = TriPinRH | HiPinRL;		// High-Pin to output
    R_PORT = TriPinRH | HiPinRL;	// High-Pin across R_L to Vcc
    adc.hp1 = W20msReadADC(HighPin);	// measure voltage at assumed Source 
    adc.tp1 = ReadADC(TristatePin);	// measure Gate voltage
    R_PORT = HiPinRL;			// switch R_H for Tristate-Pin (assumed Gate) to GND
    adc.hp2 = W20msReadADC(HighPin);	// read voltage at assumed Source again

    // if it is a self-conducting P_MOSFET or P-JFET , then must be:  adc.hp1 > adc.hp2 
    if (adc.hp1>(adc.hp2+488)) {
      if (PartFound != PART_FET) {
        // read voltage at the Gate , to differ between MOSFET and JFET
        ADC_PORT = HiADCp;		// switch High-Pin directly to VCC
        ADC_DDR = HiADCm;		// switch High-Pin to output
        adc.tp2 = W20msReadADC(TristatePin); //read voltage at the assumed Gate 

        if (adc.tp2<977) { 		// MOSFET
          PartFound = PART_FET;		// P-Kanal-MOSFET
          PartMode = PART_MODE_P_D_MOS; // Depletion-MOSFET
        } else { 			// JFET (pn-passage between Gate and Source is conducting)
          PartFound = PART_FET;		// P-Kanal-JFET
          PartMode = PART_MODE_P_JFET;
        }

        #if DebugOut == 5
          lcd_data('P');
          lcd_data('J');
        #endif

        gthvoltage = adc.tp1 - adc.hp1;		// voltage GS (Gate - Source)
        trans.uBE[1] = (unsigned int)(((unsigned long)(ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.hp1) * 1000) / RR680PL); // Id 0.01mA
        trans.b = TristatePin;			// save Pin numbers found for this FET
        trans.c = LowPin;
        trans.e = HighPin;
      }
    }
  }  // end component has current without TristatePin signal


  #ifdef COMMON_COLLECTOR
    // Test circuit with common collector (Emitter follower) PNP
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;
    ADC_DDR = LoADCm;			// Collector direct to GND
    R_PORT = HiPinRL;			// switch R_L port for HighPin (Emitter) to VCC
    R_DDR = TriPinRL | HiPinRL;		// Base resistor  R_L to GND
    adc.hp1 = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// voltage at the Emitter resistor
    adc.tp1 = ReadADC(TristatePin);	// voltage at the base resistor

    if (adc.tp1 < 10) {
      R_DDR =  TriPinRH | HiPinRL;	// Tripin=RH-
      adc.hp1 = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - W5msReadADC(HighPin);
      adc.tp1 = ReadADC(TristatePin);	// voltage at base resistor 

      #ifdef LONG_HFE
        c_hfe = ((unsigned long)adc.hp1 * (unsigned long)(((unsigned long)R_H_VAL * 100) / 
                (unsigned int)RR680PL)) / (unsigned int)adc.tp1;	
      #else
        c_hfe = ((adc.hp1 / ((RR680PL+500)/1000)) * (R_H_VAL/500)) / (adc.tp1/500);
      #endif

    } else {
      c_hfe = (unsigned long)((adc.hp1 - adc.tp1) / adc.tp1);
    }
  #endif

  // set Pins again for circuit with common Emitter PNP
  R_DDR = LoPinRL;		// switch R_L port for Low-Pin to output (GND)
  R_PORT = 0;			// switch all resistor ports to GND
  ADC_DDR = HiADCm;		// switch High-Pin to output
  ADC_PORT = HiADCp;		// switch High-Pin to VCC
  wait_about5ms();
  
  if (adc.lp_otr < 977) {
    // if the component has no connection between  HighPin and LowPin

    #if DebugOut == 5
      lcd_testpin(LowPin);
      lcd_data('P');
      lcd_testpin(HighPin);
      lcd_space();
      wait_about1s();
    #endif

    // Test to PNP
    R_DDR = LoPinRL | TriPinRL;		// switch R_L port for Tristate-Pin to output (GND), for Test of PNP
    adc.lp1 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);	// measure voltage at LowPin

    if (adc.lp1 > 3422) {
      // component has current => PNP-Transistor or equivalent
      // compute current amplification factor in both directions
      R_DDR = LoPinRL | TriPinRH;	// switch R_H port for Tristate-Pin (Base) to output (GND)

      adc.lp1 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);	// measure voltage at LowPin (assumed Collector)
      adc.tp2 = ReadADC(TristatePin);	// measure voltage at TristatePin (Base) 

      // check, if Test is done before 
      if ((PartFound == PART_TRANSISTOR) || (PartFound == PART_FET)) {
         PartReady = 1;
      }

      #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
        trans.uBE[PartReady] = ReadADC(HighPin) - adc.tp2;	// Base Emitter Voltage

        // compute current amplification factor for circuit with common Emitter
        // hFE = B = Collector current / Base current

        if(adc.tp2 < 53) {
          #if DebugOut == 5
            lcd_data('<');
            lcd_data('5');
            lcd_data('3');
          #endif

          adc.tp2 = 53;
        }
        tmp16 = adc.lp1;

        if (tmp16 > adc.lp_otr) {
          tmp16 -= adc.lp_otr;
        }

        #ifdef LONG_HFE
          trans.hfe[PartReady] = ((unsigned int)tmp16 * (unsigned long)(((unsigned long)R_H_VAL * 100) / 
                                 (unsigned int)RR680MI)) / (unsigned int)adc.tp2;	
        #else
          trans.hfe[PartReady] = ((tmp16 / ((RR680MI+500)/1000)) * (R_H_VAL/500)) / (adc.tp2/500);
        #endif
      #endif

      #ifdef COMMON_COLLECTOR
        // current amplification factor for common  Collector (Emitter follower)
        // c_hFE = (Emitter current - Base current) / Base current
        #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
          if (c_hfe > trans.hfe[PartReady]) {
        #endif
            trans.hfe[PartReady] = c_hfe;
            trans.uBE[PartReady] = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.hp1 - adc.tp1;	// Base Emitter Voltage common collector
        #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
          }
        #endif
      #endif

 
      if (PartFound != PART_THYRISTOR) {
        if (adc.tp2 > 977) {
          // PNP-Transistor is found (Base voltage moves to VCC)
          PartFound = PART_TRANSISTOR;
          PartMode = PART_MODE_PNP;
        } else {
          if ((adc.lp_otr < 97) && (adc.lp1 > 2000)) {
            // is flow voltage low enough in the closed  state?
            // (since D-Mode-FET would be by mistake detected as E-Mode )
            PartFound = PART_FET;		// P-Kanal-MOSFET is found (Basis/Gate moves not to VCC)
            PartMode = PART_MODE_P_E_MOS;
    
            // measure the Gate threshold voltage
            // Switching of Drain is monitored with digital input
            // Low level is specified up to 0.3 * VCC
            // High level is specified above 0.6 * VCC
            PinMSK = LoADCm & 7;
            ADMUX = TristatePin | (1<<REFS0);	// switch to TristatePin, Ref. VCC
            gthvoltage = 1;			// round up ((1*4)/9)
    
            for(ii=0;ii<11;ii++) {
              wdt_reset();
              ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,1);
              R_DDR = LoPinRL | TriPinRH;		// switch R_H for Tristate-Pin (Basis) to GND
    
              while (!(ADC_PIN&PinMSK));		// Wait, until the MOSFET switches and Drain moves to VCC
                      			// 1 is detected with more than 2.5V (up to 2.57V) with tests of mega168 and mega328
              R_DDR = LoPinRL;
              ADCSRA |= (1<<ADSC);		// Start Conversion
    
              while (ADCSRA&(1<<ADSC));		// wait

              gthvoltage += (1023 - ADCW);	// Add Tristatepin-Voltage
            }
    
            gthvoltage *= 4;		// is equal to 44*ADCW
            gthvoltage /= 9;		// gives resolution in mV
          }
        }

        trans.b = TristatePin;
        trans.c = LowPin;
        trans.e = HighPin;
      }  // end if PartFound != PART_THYRISTOR
    }  // end component has current => PNP

    #ifdef COMMON_COLLECTOR
      // Low-Pin=RL- HighPin=VCC
      R_DDR = LoPinRL | TriPinRL;
      R_PORT = TriPinRL;			// TriPin=RL+  NPN with common Collector
      adc.lp1 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);		// voltage at Emitter resistor
      adc.tp1 = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - ReadADC(TristatePin);	// voltage at Base resistor
    
      if (adc.tp1 < 10) {
        R_DDR = LoPinRL | TriPinRH;
        R_PORT = TriPinRH;			// Tripin=RH+
        adc.lp1 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);
        adc.tp1 = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - ReadADC(TristatePin);	// voltage at Base resistor
    
        #ifdef LONG_HFE
          c_hfe = ((unsigned long)adc.lp1 * (unsigned long)(((unsigned long)R_H_VAL * 100) / 
                  (unsigned int)RR680MI)) / (unsigned int)adc.tp1;	
        #else
          c_hfe = ((adc.lp1 / ((RR680MI+500)/1000)) * (R_H_VAL/500)) / (adc.tp2/500);
        #endif
    
      } else {
        c_hfe = (adc.lp1 - adc.tp1) / adc.tp1;
      }
    
      #if DebugOut == 5
        lcd_line4();
        lcd_clear_line();
        lcd_line4();
        lcd_data('L');
        lcd_data('P');
        lcd_string(utoa(adc.lp1,outval,10));
        lcd_space();
        lcd_data('T');
        lcd_data('P');
        lcd_string(utoa(adc.tp1,outval,10));
        wait_about1s();
      #endif
    #endif

    // Tristate (can be Base) to VCC, Test if NPN
    ADC_DDR = LoADCm;			// Low-Pin to output 0V
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;			// switch Low-Pin to GND
    R_DDR = TriPinRL | HiPinRL;		// RL port for High-Pin and Tristate-Pin to output
    R_PORT = TriPinRL | HiPinRL;	// RL port for High-Pin and Tristate-Pin to Vcc
    adc.hp1 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// measure voltage at High-Pin  (Collector)
    
    if (adc.hp1 < 1600) {
      // component has current => NPN-Transistor or somthing else
    
      #if DebugOut == 5
        lcd_testpin(LowPin);
        lcd_data('N');
        lcd_testpin(HighPin);
        lcd_space();
        wait_about1s();
      #endif
    
      if (PartReady==1) {
        goto widmes;
      }
    
      // Test auf Thyristor:
      // Gate discharge
      ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,0);	// Tristate-Pin (Gate) across R_L 10ms to GND
      adc.hp3 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// read voltage at High-Pin (probably Anode) again
                                        // current should still flow, if not,
                                        // no Thyristor or holding current to low 
    
      R_PORT = 0;			// switch R_L for High-Pin (probably Anode) to GND (turn off)
      wait_about5ms();
      R_PORT = HiPinRL;			// switch R_L for High-Pin (probably Anode) again to VCC
      adc.hp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// measure voltage at the High-Pin (probably Anode) again
    
      if ((adc.hp3 < 1600) && (adc.hp2 > 4400)) {
        // if the holding current was switched off the thyristor must be switched off too. 
        // if Thyristor was still swiched on, if gate was switched off => Thyristor
        PartFound = PART_THYRISTOR;
    
        // Test if Triac
        R_DDR = 0;
        R_PORT = 0;
        ADC_PORT = LoADCp;		// Low-Pin fix to VCC
        wait_about5ms();
    
        R_DDR = HiPinRL;		// switch R_L port HighPin to output (GND)
        if(W5msReadADC(HighPin) > 244) {
          goto savenresult;		// measure voltage at the  High-Pin (probably A2); if too high:
                                  	// component has current => kein Triac
        }
    
        R_DDR = HiPinRL | TriPinRL;	// switch R_L port for TristatePin (Gate) to output (GND) => Triac should be triggered 
        if(W5msReadADC(TristatePin) < 977) {
          goto savenresult; 		// measure voltage at the Tristate-Pin (probably Gate) ;
                                	// if to low, abort 
        }
    
        if(ReadADC(HighPin) < 733) {
          goto savenresult; 		// component has no current => no Triac => abort
        }
    
        R_DDR = HiPinRL;		// TristatePin (Gate) to input 
        if(W5msReadADC(HighPin) < 733) {
          goto savenresult; 		// component has no current without base current => no Triac => abort
        }
    
        R_PORT = HiPinRL;		// switch R_L port for HighPin to VCC => switch off holding current 
        wait_about5ms();
        R_PORT = 0;			// switch R_L port for HighPin again to GND; Triac should now switched off
        if(W5msReadADC(HighPin) > 244) {
          goto savenresult;		// measure voltage at the High-Pin (probably A2) ;
                                  	// if to high, component is not switched off => no Triac, abort
        }
    
        PartFound = PART_TRIAC;
        PartReady = 1;
        goto savenresult;
      }
    
      // Test if NPN Transistor or MOSFET
      //ADC_DDR = LoADCm;		// Low-Pin to output 0V
      R_DDR = HiPinRL | TriPinRH;	// R_H port of Tristate-Pin (Basis) to output
      R_PORT = HiPinRL | TriPinRH;	// R_H port of Tristate-Pin (Basis) to VCC
      wait_about50ms();
      adc.hp2 = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - ReadADC(HighPin);		// measure the voltage at the collector resistor 
      adc.tp2 = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - ReadADC(TristatePin);	// measure the voltage at the base resistor 
    
      #if DebugOut == 5
        lcd_line3();
        lcd_clear_line();
        lcd_line3();
        lcd_data('H');
        lcd_data('P');
        lcd_string(utoa(adc.hp2,outval,10));
        lcd_space();
        lcd_data('T');
        lcd_data('P');
        lcd_string(utoa(adc.tp2,outval,10));
      #endif
    
      if((PartFound == PART_TRANSISTOR) || (PartFound == PART_FET)) {
        PartReady = 1;		// check, if test is already done once
      }
    
      #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
        trans.uBE[PartReady] = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.tp2 - ReadADC(LowPin);
    
        // compute current amplification factor for common Emitter
        // hFE = B = Collector current / Base current
        if (adc.tp2 < 53) {
    
          #if DebugOut == 5
            lcd_data('<');
            lcd_data('5');
            lcd_data('3');
          #endif
    
          adc.tp2 = 53;
        }
    
        tmp16 = adc.hp2;
        if (tmp16 > adc.lp_otr) {
          tmp16 -= adc.lp_otr;
        }
    
        #ifdef LONG_HFE
          trans.hfe[PartReady] = ((unsigned int)tmp16 * (unsigned long)(((unsigned long)R_H_VAL * 100) / 
                                 (unsigned int)RR680PL)) / (unsigned int)adc.tp2;	
        #else
          trans.hfe[PartReady] = ((tmp16 / ((RR680PL+500)/1000)) * (R_H_VAL/500)) / (adc.tp2/500);
        #endif
      #endif
    
      #ifdef COMMON_COLLECTOR
        // compare current amplification factor for common Collector (Emitter follower)
        // hFE = (Emitterstrom - Basisstrom) / Basisstrom
    
        #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
          if (c_hfe >  trans.hfe[PartReady]) {
        #endif
            trans.hfe[PartReady] = c_hfe;
            trans.uBE[PartReady] = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.lp1 - adc.tp1;
        #ifdef COMMON_EMITTER
          }
        #endif
      #endif
    
      if(adc.tp2 > 2557) {		// Basis-voltage R_H is low enough
        PartFound = PART_TRANSISTOR;	// NPN-Transistor is found (Base is near GND)
        PartMode = PART_MODE_NPN;
      } else {				// Basis has low current
        if((adc.lp_otr < 97) && (adc.hp2 > 3400)) {
          // if flow voltage in switched off mode low enough?
          // (since D-Mode-FET will be detected in error as E-Mode )
          PartFound = PART_FET;		// N-Kanal-MOSFET is found (Basis/Gate will Not be pulled down)
          PartMode = PART_MODE_N_E_MOS;
    
          #if DebugOut == 5
            lcd_line3();
            lcd_clear_line();
            lcd_line3();
            lcd_data('N');
            lcd_data('F');
            wait_about1s();
          #endif
    
          // Switching of Drain is monitored with digital input
          // Low level is specified up to 0.3 * VCC
          // High level is specified above 0.6 * VCC
          PinMSK = HiADCm & 7;
    
          // measure Threshold voltage of Gate
          ADMUX = TristatePin | (1<<REFS0);	// measure TristatePin, Ref. VCC
          gthvoltage = 1;			// round up ((1*4)/9)
    
          for(ii=0;ii<11;ii++) {
            wdt_reset();
            ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,0);	// discharge Gate 10ms with RL 
            R_DDR = HiPinRL | TriPinRH;	// slowly charge Gate 
            R_PORT = HiPinRL | TriPinRH;
            while ((ADC_PIN&PinMSK));	// Wait, until the MOSFET switch and Drain moved to low 
                                        // 0 is detected with input voltage of 2.12V to 2.24V (tested with mega168 & mega328)
            R_DDR = HiPinRL;		// switch off current
            ADCSRA |= (1<<ADSC);		// start ADC conversion
            while (ADCSRA&(1<<ADSC));	// wait until ADC finished
            gthvoltage += ADCW;		// add result of ADC
          }
    
          gthvoltage *= 4;	// is equal to 44 * ADCW
          gthvoltage /= 9;	// scale to mV
        }
      }

savenresult:
      trans.b = TristatePin;	// save Pin-constellation
      trans.c = HighPin;
      trans.e = LowPin;
    }  // end component conduct => npn

    ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;		// switch all ADC-Ports to input
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch all ADC-Ports to 0 (no Pull up)

    // Finish
    // end component has no connection between HighPin and LowPin
    goto widmes;
  }

  // component has current
  // Test if Diode
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;

  for (ii=0;ii<200;ii++) {
    ADC_DDR = LoADCm | HiADCm;   	// discharge by short of Low and High side
    wait_about5ms();             	// Low and Highpin to GND for discharge
    ADC_DDR = LoADCm;            	// switch only Low-Pin fix to GND
    adc.hp1 = ReadADC(HighPin);  	// read voltage at High-Pin
    if (adc.hp1 < (150/8)) break;
  }

  /*
    It is possible, that wrong Parts are detected without discharging, because
    the gate of a MOSFET can be charged.
    The additional measurement with the big resistor R_H is made, to differ antiparallel diodes
    from resistors.
    A diode has a voltage, that is nearly independent from the current.
    The voltage of a resistor is proportional to the current.
  */

  #if 0
    // first check with higher current (R_L=680)
    // A diode is found better with a parallel mounted capacitor,
    // but some capacitors can be detected a a diode.
    R_DDR = HiPinRL;              	// switch R_L port for High-Pin to output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRL;
    ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,1);    	// discharge of P-Kanal-MOSFET gate
    adc.lp_otr = W5msReadADC(HighPin) - ReadADC(LowPin);
    R_DDR = HiPinRH;              	// switch R_H port for High-Pin output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRH;
    adc.hp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);     // M--|<--HP--R_H--VCC
    
    R_DDR = HiPinRL;              	// switch R_L port for High-Pin to output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRL;
    ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,0);    	// discharge for N-Kanal-MOSFET gate
    adc.hp1 = W5msReadADC(HighPin) - W5msReadADC(LowPin);
    R_DDR = HiPinRH;              	// switch R_H port for High-Pin to output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRH;
    adc.hp3 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);     // M--|<--HP--R_H--VCC

    if(adc.lp_otr > adc.hp1) {
      adc.hp1 = adc.lp_otr;		// the higher value wins
      adc.hp3 = adc.hp2;
    }
  #else
    // check first with low current (R_H=470k)
    // With this method the diode can be better differed from a capacitor,
    // but a parallel to a capacitor mounted diode can not be found.
    R_DDR = HiPinRH;			// switch R_H port for High-Pin output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRH;
    ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,1);		// discharge of P-Kanal-MOSFET gate
    adc.hp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin); 	// M--|<--HP--R_H--VCC
    ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,0);		// discharge for N-Kanal-MOSFET gate
    adc.hp3 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// M--|<--HP--R_H--VCC
    
    // check with higher current (R_L=680)
    R_DDR = HiPinRL;			// switch R_L port for High-Pin to output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRL;
    adc.hp1 = W5msReadADC(HighPin) - ReadADC(LowPin);
    ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,1);		// discharge for N-Kanal-MOSFET gate
    adc.lp_otr = W5msReadADC(HighPin) - ReadADC(LowPin);
    
    R_DDR = HiPinRH;			// switch R_H port for High-Pin output (VCC)
    R_PORT = HiPinRH;

    if(adc.lp_otr > adc.hp1) {
      adc.hp1 = adc.lp_otr;		// the higher value wins
      adc.hp3 = adc.hp2;
    } else {
      ChargePin10ms(TriPinRL,0);	// discharge for N-Kanal-MOSFET gate
    }

    adc.hp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin); 	// M--|<--HP--R_H--VCC
  #endif

  #if DebugOut == 4
    lcd_line3();
    lcd_clear_line();
    lcd_line3();
    lcd_testpin(HighPin);
    lcd_data('D');
    lcd_testpin(LowPin);
    lcd_space();
    lcd_data('h');
    lcd_string(utoa(adc.hp3,outval,10));
    lcd_space();
    lcd_data('L');
    lcd_string(utoa(adc.hp1,outval,10));
    lcd_space();
    lcd_data('H');
    lcd_string(utoa(adc.hp2,outval,10));
    lcd_space();
    wait_about1s();
  #endif

  //if((adc.hp1 > 150) && (adc.hp1 < 4640) && (adc.hp1 > (adc.hp3+(adc.hp3/8))) && (adc.hp3*8 > adc.hp1)) {
  if((adc.hp1 > 150) && (adc.hp1 < 4640) && (adc.hp2 < adc.hp1) && (adc.hp1 > (adc.hp3+(adc.hp3/8))) && (adc.hp3*16 > adc.hp1)) {
    // voltage is above 0,15V and below 4,64V => Ok
    if((PartFound == PART_NONE) || (PartFound == PART_RESISTOR)) {
      PartFound = PART_DIODE;	// mark for diode only, if no other component is found
                                // since there is a problem with Transistors with a protection diode
      #if DebugOut == 4
        lcd_data('D');
      #endif
    }

    diodes[NumOfDiodes].Anode = HighPin;
    diodes[NumOfDiodes].Cathode = LowPin;
    diodes[NumOfDiodes].Voltage = adc.hp1;	// voltage in Millivolt 
    NumOfDiodes++;
  }  // end voltage is above 0,15V and below 4,64V 

  #if DebugOut == 4
    lcd_data(NumOfDiodes+'0');
  #endif

widmes:
  if (NumOfDiodes > 0) goto clean_ports;
  // resistor measurement
  wdt_reset();

  // U_SCALE can be set to 4 for better resolution of ReadADC result
  #if U_SCALE != 1
    ADCconfig.U_AVCC *= U_SCALE;	// scale to higher resolution, mV scale is not required
    ADCconfig.U_Bandgap *= U_SCALE;
  #endif

  #if R_ANZ_MESS != ANZ_MESS
    ADCconfig.Samples = R_ANZ_MESS;	// switch to special number of repetitions
  #endif

  #define MAX_REPEAT (700 / (5 + R_ANZ_MESS/8))

  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;
  ADC_DDR = LoADCm;		// switch Low-Pin to output (GND)
  R_DDR = HiPinRL;		// switch R_L port for High-Pin to output (VCC)
  R_PORT = HiPinRL;	

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    adc.hp2 = 0;

    for (ii=1;ii<MAX_REPEAT;ii++) {
      // wait until voltage is stable
      adc.tp1 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);		// low-voltage at Rx with load
      adc.hp1 = ReadADC(HighPin);		// voltage at resistor Rx with R_L
      udiff = adc.hp1 - adc.hp2;
      if (udiff < 0) udiff = -udiff;
      if (udiff < 3) break;
      adc.hp2 = adc.hp1;
      wdt_reset();
    }

    if (ii == MAX_REPEAT) goto testend;
  #else
    adc.tp1 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);	// low-voltage at Rx with load
    adc.hp1 = ReadADC(HighPin);		// voltage at resistor Rx with R_L
  #endif

  if (adc.tp1 > adc.hp1) {
    adc.tp1 = adc.hp1;
  }

  R_PORT = 0;
  R_DDR = HiPinRH;			// switch R_H port for High-Pin to output (GND)
  adc.hp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// read voltage, should be down

  if (adc.hp2 > (20*U_SCALE)) {
    // if resistor, voltage should be down

    #if DebugOut == 3
      lcd_line3();
      lcd_clear_line();
      lcd_line3();
      lcd_testpin(LowPin);
      lcd_data('U');
      lcd_testpin(HighPin);
      lcd_data('A');
      lcd_string(utoa(adc.hp1, outval, 10));
      lcd_data('B');
      lcd_string(utoa(adc.hp2, outval, 10));
      lcd_space();
    #endif

    goto testend;
  }

  R_PORT = HiPinRH;			// switch R_H for High-Pin to VCC
  adc.hp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// voltage at resistor Rx with R_H

  ADC_DDR = HiADCm;			// switch High-Pin to output
  ADC_PORT = HiADCp;			// switch High-Pin to VCC
  R_PORT = 0;
  R_DDR = LoPinRL;			// switch R_L for Low-Pin to GND

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    adc.lp2 = 0;

    for (ii=1;ii<MAX_REPEAT;ii++) {
      // wait until voltage is stable
      adc.tp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// high voltage with load
      adc.lp1 = ReadADC(LowPin);	// voltage at the other end of Rx
      udiff = adc.lp1 - adc.lp2;
      if (udiff < 0) udiff = -udiff;
      if (udiff < 3) break;
      adc.lp2 = adc.lp1;
      wdt_reset();
    }

    if (ii == MAX_REPEAT) goto testend;
  #else
    adc.tp2 = W5msReadADC(HighPin);	// high voltage with load
    adc.lp1 = ReadADC(LowPin);		// voltage at the other end of Rx
  #endif

  if (adc.tp2 < adc.lp1) {
    adc.tp2 = adc.lp1;
  }

  R_DDR = LoPinRH;			// switch R_H for Low-Pin to GND
  adc.lp2 = W5msReadADC(LowPin);

  if((adc.hp1 < (4400*U_SCALE)) && (adc.hp2 > (97*U_SCALE))) {
    //voltage break down isn't insufficient 

    #if DebugOut == 3
      lcd_data('F');
    #endif

    goto testend; 
  }

  //if ((adc.hp2 + (adc.hp2 / 61)) < adc.hp1)
  if (adc.hp2 < (4972*U_SCALE)) { 
    // voltage breaks down with low test current and it is not nearly shorted  => resistor
    //if (adc.lp1 < 120) { 		// take measurement with R_H 
    if (adc.lp1 < (169*U_SCALE)) {  	// take measurement with R_H 
      ii = 'H';

      if (adc.lp2 < (38*U_SCALE)) {
        // measurement > 60MOhm to big resistance
        goto testend;
      }

      // two measurements with R_H resistors (470k) are made:
      // lirx1 (measurement at HighPin)
      lirx1 = (unsigned long)((unsigned int)R_H_VAL) * (unsigned long)adc.hp2 / (ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.hp2);
      // lirx2 (measurement at LowPin)
      lirx2 = (unsigned long)((unsigned int)R_H_VAL) * (unsigned long)(ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.lp2) / adc.lp2;

      #define U_INT_LIMIT (990*U_SCALE)		// 1V switch limit in ReadADC for atmega family

      #ifdef __AVR_ATmega8__
        #define FAKT_LOW 2		// resolution is about twice as good
      #else
        #define FAKT_LOW 4		// resolution is about four times better
      #endif

      #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
        if (adc.hp2 < U_INT_LIMIT) {
          lrx1 = (lirx1*FAKT_LOW + lirx2) / (FAKT_LOW+1);	// weighted average of both R_H measurements
        } else if (adc.lp2 < U_INT_LIMIT){
          lrx1 = (lirx2*FAKT_LOW + lirx1) / (FAKT_LOW+1);	// weighted average of both R_H measurements
        } else 
      #endif
        {
          lrx1 = (lirx1 + lirx2) / 2;	// average of both R_H measurements
        }

      lrx1 *= 100;
      lrx1 += RH_OFFSET;		// add constant for correction of systematic error

    } else {
      ii = 'L';
      // two measurements with R_L resistors (680) are made:
      // lirx1 (measurement at HighPin)

      if (adc.tp1 > adc.hp1) {
        adc.hp1 = adc.tp1;		// diff negativ is illegal
      }

      lirx1 =(unsigned long)RR680PL * (unsigned long)(adc.hp1 - adc.tp1) / (ADCconfig.U_AVCC - adc.hp1);

      if (adc.tp2 < adc.lp1) {
        adc.lp1 = adc.tp2;		// diff negativ is illegal
      }

      // lirx2 (Measurement at LowPin)
      lirx2 =(unsigned long)RR680MI * (unsigned long)(adc.tp2 -adc.lp1) / adc.lp1;
      //lrx1 =(unsigned long)R_L_VAL * (unsigned long)adc.hp1 / (adc.hp3 - adc.hp1);

      #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
        if (adc.hp1 < U_INT_LIMIT) {
          lrx1 = (lirx1*FAKT_LOW + lirx2) / (FAKT_LOW+1);	// weighted average of both R_L measurements
        } else if (adc.lp1 < U_INT_LIMIT) {
          lrx1 = (lirx2*FAKT_LOW + lirx1) / (FAKT_LOW+1);	// weighted average of both R_L measurements
        } else
      #endif
        {
          lrx1 = (lirx1 + lirx2) / 2;	// average of both R_L measurements
        }
    }
    // lrx1  is tempory result

    #if 0
      // The zero resistance is in 0.01 Ohm units and usually so little, that correction for resistors above 10 Ohm
      // is not necassary
      ii = eeprom_read_byte(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[LowPin+HighPin]) / 10;  // Resistance offset in 0,1 Ohm units
      if (ii < lrx1) {
        lrx1 -= ii;
      } else {
        lrx1 = 0;
      }
    #endif

    #if DebugOut == 3
      lcd_line3();
      lcd_clear_line();
      lcd_line3();
      lcd_testpin(LowPin);
      lcd_data(ii);
      lcd_testpin(HighPin);
      lcd_space();

      if (ii == 'H') {
        lcd_data('X');
        DisplayValue(lirx1,1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4)
        lcd_space();
        lcd_data('Y');
        DisplayValue(lirx2,1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4)
        lcd_space();
      } else {
        lcd_data('x');
        DisplayValue(lirx1,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4)
        lcd_space();
        lcd_data('y');
        DisplayValue(lirx2,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4)
      }

      lcd_space();
      lcd_line4();
      lcd_clear_line();
      lcd_line4();
      DisplayValue(lirx2,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,4)
      lcd_space();
      lcd_line2();
    #endif

    if((PartFound == PART_DIODE) || (PartFound == PART_NONE) || (PartFound == PART_RESISTOR)) {
      for (ii=0; ii<ResistorsFound; ii++) {
        // search measurements with inverse polarity 
        thisR = &resis[ii];
        if (thisR->rt != TristatePin) continue;

        // must be measurement with inverse polarity 
        // resolution is 0.1 Ohm, 1 Ohm = 10 !
        lirx1 = (labs((long)lrx1 - (long)thisR->rx) * 10) / (lrx1 + thisR->rx + 100);

        if (lirx1  > 0) {
          #if DebugOut == 3
            lcd_data('R');
            lcd_data('!');
            lcd_data('=');
            DisplayValue(thisR->rx,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,3)
            lcd_space();
            DisplayValue(lirx1,-1,LCD_CHAR_OMEGA,3)
            lcd_space();
          #endif

          goto testend;  // <10% mismatch
        }

        PartFound = PART_RESISTOR;
        goto testend;
      }  // end for

      // no same resistor with the same Tristate-Pin found, new one
      thisR = &resis[ResistorsFound];	// pointer to a free resistor structure
      thisR->rx = lrx1;			// save resistor value

      #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
        thisR->lx = 0;			// no inductance
      #endif

        thisR->ra = LowPin;		// save Pin numbers
        thisR->rb = HighPin;
        thisR->rt = TristatePin;	// Tristate is saved for easier search of inverse measurement
        ResistorsFound++;		// 1 more resistor found

      #if DebugOut == 3
        lcd_data(ResistorsFound+'0');
        lcd_data('R');
      #endif
    }
  }

testend:

  #if U_SCALE != 1
    ADCconfig.U_AVCC /= U_SCALE;	// scale back to mV resolution
    ADCconfig.U_Bandgap /= U_SCALE;
  #endif

  #if R_ANZ_MESS != ANZ_MESS
    ADCconfig.Samples = ANZ_MESS;	// switch back to standard number of repetition
  #endif

  #ifdef DebugOut
    #if DebugOut < 10
      wait_about2s();
    #endif
  #endif

clean_ports:

  ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;		// all ADC-Pins Input
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// all ADC outputs to Ground, keine Pull up
  R_DDR = 0;			// all resistor-outputs to Input
  R_PORT = 0;			// all resistor-outputs to Ground, no Pull up
}  // end CheckPins()

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// Get residual current in reverse direction of a diode
//=================================================================
void GetIr(uint8_t hipin, uint8_t lopin) {
  unsigned int u_res;			// reverse voltage at 470k
  unsigned int ir_nano;
  //unsigned int ir_micro;
  uint8_t LoPinR_L;
  uint8_t HiADC;

  HiADC = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[hipin]);
  ADC_PORT = HiADC | TXD_VAL;			// switch ADC port to high level
  ADC_DDR = HiADC | TXD_MSK;			// switch High Pin direct to VCC
  LoPinR_L = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[lopin]);  	// R_L mask for LowPin R_L load
  R_PORT = 0;					// switch R-Port to GND
  R_DDR = LoPinR_L + LoPinR_L;			// switch R_H port for LowPin to output (GND)

  u_res = W5msReadADC(lopin);		// read voltage
  if (u_res == 0) return;		// no Output, if no current in reverse direction

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd_line4();
  #endif

  lcd_fix_string(Ir_str);		// output text "  Ir="

  #ifdef WITH_IRMICRO
    if (u_res < 2500) {
  #endif

      // R_H_VAL has units of 10 Ohm, u_res has units of mV, ir_nano has units of nA
      ir_nano = (unsigned long)(u_res * 100000UL) / R_H_VAL;
      DisplayValue(ir_nano,-9,'A',2);	// output two digits of current with nA units

  #ifdef WITH_IRMICRO
    } else {
      R_DDR = LoPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for LowPin to output (GND)
      u_res = W5msReadADC(lopin);	// read voltage
      ir_nano = 0xffff;			// set to max
      // RR680MI has units of 0.1 Ohm, u_res has units of mV, ir_micro has units of uA
      ir_micro = (unsigned long)(u_res * 10000UL) / RR680MI;
      DisplayValue(ir_micro,-6,'A',2);	// output two digits of current in uA units
    }
  #endif

  ADC_DDR = TXD_MSK;			// switch off
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;			// switch off
  R_DDR = 0;				// switch off current

  return;
}

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

/*
extern struct ADCconfig_t{
  uint8_t Samples;              // number of ADC samples to take
  uint8_t RefFlag;              // save Reference type VCC of IntRef
  uint16_t U_Bandgap;           // Reference Voltage in mV
  uint16_t U_AVCC;		// Voltage of AVCC
} ADCconfig;
*/

#ifdef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
  //#define StartADCwait() ADCSRA = (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; /* enable ADC and start */
  #define StartADCwait() ADCSRA = StartADCmsk; /* Start conversion */\
  while (ADCSRA & (1 << ADSC))  /* wait until conversion is done */
#else
  #define StartADCwait() ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | (1<<ADIE) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; /* enable ADC and Interrupt */\
  set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_ADC);\
  sleep_mode();	/* Start ADC, return, if ADC has finished */
#endif

unsigned int ReadADC (uint8_t Probe) {
  unsigned int U; 		// return value (mV)
  uint8_t Samples; 		// loop counter
  unsigned long Value; 		// ADC value
  Probe |= (1 << REFS0); 	// use internal reference anyway

  #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
sample:
  #endif

  ADMUX = Probe; 	// set input channel and U reference

  #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
    // if voltage reference changes, wait for voltage stabilization
    if ((Probe & (1 << REFS1)) != 0) {
      // switch to 1.1V Reference
      #ifdef NO_AREF_CAP
        wait100us(); 		// time for voltage stabilization
      #else
        wait_about10ms(); 	// time for voltage stabilization
      #endif
    }
  #endif

  // allways do one dummy read of ADC, 112us
  StartADCwait();		// start ADC and wait

  // sample ADC readings
  Value = 0UL; 			// reset sampling variable
  Samples = 0; 			// number of samples to take

  while (Samples < ADCconfig.Samples) {		// take samples
    StartADCwait();				// start ADC and wait
    Value += ADCW; 				// add ADC reading

    #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
      // auto-switch voltage reference for low readings
      if ((Samples == 4) && (ADCconfig.U_Bandgap > 255) && ((uint16_t)Value < 1024) && !(Probe & (1 << REFS1))) {
        Probe |= (1 << REFS1); 		// select internal bandgap reference

        #if PROCESSOR_TYP == 1280
          Probe &= ~(1 << REFS0);	// ATmega640/1280/2560 1.1V Reference with REFS0=0
        #endif

        goto sample; 	// re-run sampling
      }
    #endif

    Samples++; 		// one more done
  }

  #ifdef AUTOSCALE_ADC
    // convert ADC reading to voltage - single sample: U = ADC reading * U_ref / 1024
    // get voltage of reference used
    if (Probe & (1 << REFS1)) U = ADCconfig.U_Bandgap; 	// bandgap reference
    else U = ADCconfig.U_AVCC; 	// Vcc reference
  #else                                 
    U = ADCconfig.U_AVCC; 	// Vcc reference
  #endif

  // convert to voltage
  Value *= U; 		// ADC readings * U_ref
  Value /= 1023; 	// / 1024 for 10bit ADC

  // de-sample to get average voltage
  Value /= ADCconfig.Samples;
  U = (unsigned int)Value;
  return U;
  //return ((unsigned int)(Value / (1023 * (unsigned long)ADCconfig.Samples)));
}

unsigned int W5msReadADC (uint8_t Probe) {
  wait_about5ms();
  return (ReadADC(Probe));
}

unsigned int W10msReadADC (uint8_t Probe) {
  wait_about10ms();
  return (ReadADC(Probe));
}

unsigned int W20msReadADC (uint8_t Probe) {
  wait_about20ms();
  return (ReadADC(Probe));
}

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// new code by K.-H. Kubbeler
// ReadCapacity tries to find the value of a capacitor by measuring the load time.
// first of all the capacitor is discharged.
// Then a series of up to 500 load pulses with 10ms duration each is done across the R_L (680Ohm)
// resistor.
// After each load pulse the voltage of the capacitor is measured without any load current.
// If voltage reaches a value of more than 300mV and is below 1.3V, the capacity can be
// computed from load time and voltage by a interpolating a build in table.
// If the voltage reaches a value of more than 1.3V with only one load pulse,
// another measurement methode is used:
// The build in 16bit counter can save the counter value at external events.
// One of these events can be the output change of a build in comparator.
// The comparator can compare the voltage of any of the ADC input pins with the voltage
// of the internal reference (1.3V or 1.1V).
// After setting up the comparator and counter properly, the load of capacitor is started 
// with connecting the positive pin with the R_H resistor (470kOhm) to VCC and immediately
// the counter is started. By counting the overflow Events of the 16bit counter and watching
// the counter event flag  the total load time of the capacitor until reaching the internal
// reference voltage can be measured.
// If any of the tries to measure the load time is successful,
// the following variables are set:
// cap.cval = value of the capacitor 
// cap.cval_uncorrected = value of the capacitor uncorrected
// cap.esr = serial resistance of capacitor,  0.01 Ohm units
// cap.cpre = units of cap.cval (-12==pF, -9=nF, -6=uF)
// ca   = Pin number (0-2) of the LowPin
// cb   = Pin number (0-2) of the HighPin

//=================================================================
void ReadCapacity(uint8_t HighPin, uint8_t LowPin) {
  // check if capacitor and measure the capacity value
  unsigned int tmpint;
  unsigned int adcv[4];

  #ifdef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
    unsigned int ovcnt16;
  #endif

  uint8_t HiPinR_L, HiPinR_H;
  uint8_t LoADC;
  uint8_t ii;

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    unsigned int vloss;		// lost voltage after load pulse in 0.1% 
  #endif

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    pin_combination = (HighPin * 3) + LowPin - 1;	// coded Pin combination for capacity zero offset
  #endif

  LoADC = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[LowPin]) | TXD_MSK;
  HiPinR_L = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[HighPin]);		// R_L mask for HighPin R_L load
  HiPinR_H = HiPinR_L + HiPinR_L;			// double for HighPin R_H load

  #if DebugOut == 10
    lcd_line3();
    lcd_clear_line();
    lcd_line3();
    lcd_testpin(LowPin);
    lcd_data('C');
    lcd_testpin(HighPin);
    lcd_space();
  #endif

  if(PartFound == PART_RESISTOR) {

    #if DebugOut == 10
      lcd_data('R');
      wait_about2s();
    #endif

    return;	// We have found a resistor already 
  }

  for (ii=0;ii<NumOfDiodes;ii++) {
    if ((diodes[ii].Cathode == LowPin) && (diodes[ii].Anode == HighPin) && (diodes[ii].Voltage < 1500)) {

      #if DebugOut == 10
        lcd_data('D');
        wait_about2s();
      #endif

      return;
    }
  }
  
  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    cap.esr = 0;			// set ESR of capacitor to zero
    vloss = 0;				// set lost voltage to zero
  #endif

  cap.cval = 0;				// set capacity value to zero
  cap.cpre = -12;			// default unit is pF
  EntladePins();			// discharge capacitor

  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;			// switch ADC-Port to GND
  R_PORT = 0;				// switch R-Port to GND
  ADC_DDR = LoADC;			// switch Low-Pin to output (GND)
  R_DDR = HiPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for HighPin to output (GND)
  adcv[0] = ReadADC(HighPin);		// voltage before any load 

  // ******** should adcv[0] be measured without current???
  adcv[2] = adcv[0];			// preset to prevent compiler warning

  for (ovcnt16=0; ovcnt16<500; ovcnt16++) {
    R_PORT = HiPinR_L;			// R_L to 1 (VCC) 
    R_DDR = HiPinR_L;			// switch Pin to output, across R to GND or VCC
    wait10ms();				// wait exactly 10ms, do not sleep

    R_DDR = 0;				// switch back to input
    R_PORT = 0;				// no Pull up
    wait500us();			// wait a little time

    wdt_reset();

    // read voltage without current, is already charged enough?
    adcv[2] = ReadADC(HighPin);

    if (adcv[2] > adcv[0]) {
      adcv[2] -= adcv[0];		// difference to beginning voltage
    } else {
      adcv[2] = 0;			// voltage is lower or same as beginning voltage
    }

    if ((ovcnt16 == 126) && (adcv[2] < 75)) {
      // 300mV can not be reached well-timed 
      break;		// don't try to load any more
    }

    if (adcv[2] > 300) {
      break;		// probably 100mF can be charged well-timed 
    }
  }

  // wait 5ms and read voltage again, does the capacitor keep the voltage?
  //adcv[1] = W5msReadADC(HighPin) - adcv[0];
  //wdt_reset();

  #if DebugOut == 10
    DisplayValue(ovcnt16,0,' ',4);
    DisplayValue(adcv[2],-3,'V',4);
  #endif

  if (adcv[2] < 301) {

    #if DebugOut == 10
      lcd_data('K');
      lcd_space();
      wait1s();
    #endif

    //if (NumOfDiodes != 0) goto messe_mit_rh;
    goto keinC;		// was never charged enough, >100mF or shorted
  }

  // voltage is rised properly and keeps the voltage enough
  if ((ovcnt16 == 0 ) && (adcv[2] > 1300)) {
    goto messe_mit_rh;		// Voltage of more than 1300mV is reached in one pulse, too fast loaded
  }

  // Capacity is more than about 50uF

  #ifdef NO_CAP_HOLD_TIME
    ChargePin10ms(HiPinR_H,0);		// switch HighPin with R_H 10ms auf GND, then currentless
    adcv[3] = ReadADC(HighPin) - adcv[0];  // read voltage again, is discharged only a little bit ?

    if (adcv[3] > adcv[0]) {
      adcv[3] -= adcv[0];		// difference to beginning voltage
    } else {
      adcv[3] = 0;			// voltage is lower to beginning voltage
    }

    #if DebugOut == 10
      lcd_data('U');
      lcd_data('3');
      lcd_data(':');
      lcd_string(utoa(adcv[3],outval,10));
      lcd_space();
      wait_about2s();
    #endif

    if ((adcv[3] + adcv[3]) < adcv[2]) {

      #if DebugOut == 10
        lcd_data('H');
        lcd_space();
        wait_about1s();
      #endif

      if (ovcnt16 == 0 )  {
        goto messe_mit_rh;		// Voltage of more than 1300mV is reached in one pulse, but not hold
      }

      goto keinC;  // implausible, not yet the half voltage
    }

    cap.cval_uncorrected.dw = ovcnt16 + 1;
    cap.cval_uncorrected.dw *= getRLmultip(adcv[2]);	// get factor to convert time to capacity from table

  #else
    // wait the half the time which was required for loading
    adcv[3] = adcv[2];			// preset to prevent compiler warning

    for (tmpint=0; tmpint<=ovcnt16; tmpint++) {
      wait5ms();
      adcv[3] = ReadADC(HighPin);	// read voltage again, is discharged only a little bit ?
      wdt_reset();
    }

    if (adcv[3] > adcv[0]) {
      adcv[3] -= adcv[0];		// difference to beginning voltage
    } else {
      adcv[3] = 0;			// voltage is lower or same as beginning voltage
    }

    if (adcv[2] > adcv[3]) {
      // build difference to load voltage
      adcv[3] = adcv[2] - adcv[3];	// lost voltage during load time wait
    } else {
      adcv[3] = 0;			// no lost voltage
    }

    #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
      // compute equivalent parallel resistance from voltage drop
      if (adcv[3] > 0) {
        // there is any voltage drop (adcv[3]) !
        // adcv[2] is the loaded voltage.
        vloss = (unsigned long)(adcv[3] * 1000UL) / adcv[2];
      }
    #endif

    if (adcv[3] > 100) {
      // more than 100mV is lost during load time

      #if DebugOut == 10
        lcd_data('L');
        lcd_space();
        wait_about1s();
      #endif

      if (ovcnt16 == 0 )  {
        goto messe_mit_rh;		// Voltage of more than 1300mV is reached in one pulse, but not hold
      }

      goto keinC;			// capacitor does not keep the voltage about 5ms
    }

    cap.cval_uncorrected.dw = ovcnt16 + 1;
    // compute factor with load voltage + lost voltage during the voltage load time
    cap.cval_uncorrected.dw *= getRLmultip(adcv[2]+adcv[3]);	// get factor to convert time to capacity from table
  #endif

  cap.cval = cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;	// set result to uncorrected
  cap.cpre = -9;			// switch units to nF 
  Scale_C_with_vcc();

  // cap.cval for this type is at least 40000nF, so the last digit will be never shown
  cap.cval *= (1000 - C_H_KORR);	// correct with C_H_KORR with 0.1% resolution, but prevent overflow
  cap.cval /= 100;

  #if DebugOut == 10
    lcd_line3();
    lcd_clear_line();
    lcd_line3();
    lcd_testpin(LowPin);
    lcd_data('C');
    lcd_testpin(HighPin);
    lcd_space();
    DisplayValue(cap.cval,cap.cpre,'F',4);
    lcd_space();
    lcd_string(utoa(ovcnt16,outval,10));
    wait_about3s();
  #endif

  goto checkDiodes;

//==================================================================================
// Measurement of little capacity values
messe_mit_rh:
  // little capacity value, about  < 50 uF
  EntladePins();			// discharge capacitor

  // measure with the R_H (470kOhm) resistor 
  R_PORT = 0;		// R_DDR ist HiPinR_L
  ADC_DDR = (1<<TP1) | (1<<TP2) | (1<<TP3) | (1<<TxD);	// switch all Pins to output
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch all ADC Pins to GND
  R_DDR = HiPinR_H;   		// switch R_H resistor port for HighPin to output (GND)

  // setup Analog Comparator
  ADC_COMP_CONTROL = (1<<ACME);			// enable Analog Comparator Multiplexer
  ACSR =  (1<<ACBG) | (1<<ACI)  | (1<<ACIC);	// enable, 1.3V, no Interrupt, Connect to Timer1 
  ADMUX = (1<<REFS0) | HighPin;			// switch Mux to High-Pin
  ADCSRA = (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; 		// disable ADC
  wait200us();					// wait for bandgap to start up

  // setup Counter1
  ovcnt16 = 0;
  TCCR1A = 0;			// set Counter1 to normal Mode
  TCNT1 = 0;			// set Counter to 0
  TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<ICF1) | (1<<OCF1B) | (1<<OCF1A) | (1<<TOV1);	// clear interrupt flags

  #ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
    TIMSK1 = (1<<TOIE1) | (1<<ICIE1);	// enable Timer overflow interrupt and input capture interrupt
    unfinished = 1;
  #endif

  R_PORT = HiPinR_H;           	// switch R_H resistor port for HighPin to VCC

  if(PartFound == PART_FET) {
    // charge capacitor with R_H resistor
    TCCR1B = (1<<CS10);	//Start counter 1MHz or 8MHz
    ADC_DDR = (((1<<TP1) | (1<<TP2) | (1<<TP3) | TXD_MSK) & ~(1<<HighPin));	// release only HighPin ADC port
  } else {
    TCCR1B =  (1<<CS10);	// start counter 1MHz or 8MHz
    ADC_DDR = LoADC;		// stay LoADC Pin switched to GND, charge capacitor with R_H slowly
  }

  //******************************
  #ifdef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
    while(1) {
      // Wait, until  Input Capture is set
      ii = TI1_INT_FLAGS;	// read Timer flags

      if (ii & (1<<ICF1))  {
        break;
      }

      if((ii & (1<<TOV1))) {		// counter overflow, 65.536 ms @ 1MHz, 8.192ms @ 8MHz
        TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<TOV1);	// Reset OV Flag
        wdt_reset();
        ovcnt16++;

        if(ovcnt16 == (F_CPU/5000)) {
          break; 			// Timeout for Charging, above 12 s
        }
      }
    }

    TCCR1B = (0<<ICNC1) | (0<<ICES1) | (0<<CS10);  // stop counter
    TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<ICF1);		// Reset Input Capture
    tmpint = ICR1;			// get previous Input Capture Counter flag

    // check actual counter, if an additional overflow must be added
    if((TCNT1 > tmpint) && (ii & (1<<TOV1))) {
      // this OV was not counted, but was before the Input Capture
      TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<TOV1);	// Reset OV Flag
      ovcnt16++;
    }

  #else
    while(unfinished) {
      set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_IDLE);
      sleep_mode();    			// wait for interrupt
      wdt_reset();

      if(ovcnt16 == (F_CPU/5000)) {
        break; 				// Timeout for Charging, above 12 s
      }
    }

    TCCR1B = (0<<ICNC1) | (0<<ICES1) | (0<<CS10);  	// stop counter
    tmpint = ICR1;					// get previous Input Capture Counter flag
    TIMSK1 = (0<<TOIE1) | (0<<ICIE1);	// disable Timer overflow interrupt and input capture interrupt

    if (TCNT1 < tmpint) {
      ovcnt16--;			// one ov to much
    }
  #endif

  //------------------------------------------------------------
  ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV;	 // enable ADC
  R_DDR = 0;					// switch R_H resistor port for input
  R_PORT = 0;					// switch R_H resistor port pull up for HighPin off
  adcv[2] = ReadADC(HighPin);   		// get loaded voltage
  load_diff = adcv[2] + REF_C_KORR - ref_mv;	// build difference of capacitor voltage to Reference Voltage
  //------------------------------------------------------------

  if (ovcnt16 >= (F_CPU/10000)) {

    #if DebugOut == 10
      lcd_data('k');
      wait_about1s();
    #endif

    goto keinC;	// no normal end
  }

  //cap.cval_uncorrected = CombineII2Long(ovcnt16, tmpint);
  cap.cval_uncorrected.w[1] = ovcnt16;
  cap.cval_uncorrected.w[0] = tmpint;

  cap.cpre = -12;			// cap.cval unit is pF 
  if (ovcnt16 > 65) {
    cap.cval_uncorrected.dw /= 100;	// switch to next unit
    cap.cpre += 2;			// set unit, prevent overflow
  }

  cap.cval_uncorrected.dw *= RHmultip;		// 708
  cap.cval_uncorrected.dw /= (F_CPU / 10000);	// divide by 100 (@ 1MHz clock), 800 (@ 8MHz clock)
  cap.cval = cap.cval_uncorrected.dw;		// set the corrected cap.cval
  Scale_C_with_vcc();

  if (cap.cpre == -12) {
    #if COMP_SLEW1 > COMP_SLEW2
      if (cap.cval < COMP_SLEW1) {
        // add slew rate dependent offset
        cap.cval += (COMP_SLEW1 / (cap.cval+COMP_SLEW2 ));
      }
    #endif

    #ifdef AUTO_CAL
      // auto calibration mode, cap_null can be updated in selftest section
      tmpint = eeprom_read_byte(&c_zero_tab[pin_combination]);	// read zero offset

      if (cap.cval > tmpint) {
        cap.cval -= tmpint;		// subtract zero offset (pF)
      } else {
        cap.cval = 0;			// unsigned long may not reach negativ value
      }

    #else
      if (HighPin == TP2) cap.cval += TP2_CAP_OFFSET;	// measurements with TP2 have 2pF less capacity

      if (cap.cval > C_NULL) {
        cap.cval -= C_NULL;		// subtract constant offset (pF)
      } else {
        cap.cval = 0;			// unsigned long may not reach negativ value
      }
    #endif
  }

  #if DebugOut == 10
    R_DDR = 0;			// switch all resistor ports to input
    lcd_line4();
    lcd_clear_line();
    lcd_line4();
    lcd_testpin(LowPin);
    lcd_data('c');
    lcd_testpin(HighPin);
    lcd_space();
    DisplayValue(cap.cval,cap.cpre,'F',4);
    wait_about3s();
  #endif

  R_DDR = HiPinR_L; 		// switch R_L for High-Pin to GND

  #if F_CPU < 2000001
    if(cap.cval < 50)
  #else 
    if(cap.cval < 25)
  #endif 
    {
      // cap.cval can only be so little in pF unit, cap.cpre must not be testet!

      #if DebugOut == 10
        lcd_data('<');
        lcd_space();
        wait_about1s();
      #endif

      goto keinC;  // capacity to low, < 50pF @1MHz (25pF @8MHz)
    }

  // end low capacity 

checkDiodes:

  if((NumOfDiodes > 0)  && (PartFound != PART_FET)) {

    #if DebugOut == 10
      lcd_data('D');
      lcd_space();
      wait_about1s();
    #endif

    // nearly shure, that there is one or more diodes in reverse direction,
    // which would be wrongly detected as capacitor 
  } else {
    PartFound = PART_CAPACITOR;		// capacitor is found

    if ((cap.cpre > cap.cpre_max) || ((cap.cpre == cap.cpre_max) && (cap.cval > cap.cval_max))) {
      // we have found a greater one
      cap.cval_max = cap.cval;
      cap.cpre_max = cap.cpre;

      #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
        cap.v_loss = vloss;		// lost voltage in 0.01%
      #endif

      cap.ca = LowPin;		// save LowPin
      cap.cb = HighPin;		// save HighPin
    }
  }

keinC:

  // discharge capacitor again
  //EntladePins();		// discharge capacitors
  // ready
  // switch all ports to input
  ADC_DDR =  TXD_MSK;		// switch all ADC ports to input
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch all ADC outputs to GND, no pull up
  R_DDR = 0;			// switch all resistor ports to input
  R_PORT = 0; 			// switch all resistor outputs to GND, no pull up

  return;
}  // end ReadCapacity()


unsigned int getRLmultip(unsigned int cvolt) {

  // interpolate table RLtab corresponding to voltage cvolt
  // Widerstand 680 Ohm          300   325   350   375   400   425   450   475   500   525   550   575   600   625   650   675   700   725   750   775   800   825   850   875   900   925   950   975  1000  1025  1050  1075  1100  1125  1150  1175  1200  1225  1250  1275  1300  1325  1350  1375  1400  mV
  //uint16_t RLtab[] MEM_TEXT = {22447,20665,19138,17815,16657,15635,14727,13914,13182,12520,11918,11369,10865,10401, 9973, 9577, 9209, 8866, 8546, 8247, 7966, 7702, 7454, 7220, 6999, 6789, 6591, 6403, 6224, 6054, 5892, 5738, 5590, 5449, 5314, 5185, 5061, 4942, 4828, 4718, 4613, 4511, 4413, 4319, 4228};

  #define RL_Tab_Abstand 25     // displacement of table 25mV
  #define RL_Tab_Beginn 300     // begin of table ist 300mV
  #define RL_Tab_Length 1100    // length of table is 1400-300

  unsigned int uvolt;
  unsigned int y1, y2;
  uint8_t tabind;
  uint8_t tabres;

  if (cvolt >= RL_Tab_Beginn) {
    uvolt = cvolt - RL_Tab_Beginn;
  } else {
    uvolt = 0;			// limit to begin of table
  }

  tabind = uvolt / RL_Tab_Abstand;
  tabres = uvolt % RL_Tab_Abstand;
  tabres = RL_Tab_Abstand - tabres;

  if (tabind > (RL_Tab_Length/RL_Tab_Abstand)) {
    tabind = (RL_Tab_Length/RL_Tab_Abstand);	// limit to end of table
  }

  y1 = MEM_read_word(&RLtab[tabind]);
  y2 = MEM_read_word(&RLtab[tabind+1]);
  return ( ((y1 - y2) * tabres + (RL_Tab_Abstand/2)) / RL_Tab_Abstand + y2); // interpolate table
}

void Scale_C_with_vcc(void) {

  while (cap.cval > 100000) {
    cap.cval /= 10;
    cap.cpre ++;			// prevent overflow
  }

  cap.cval *= ADCconfig.U_AVCC;		// scale with measured voltage
  cap.cval /= U_VCC;			// Factors are computed for U_VCC
}

#ifndef INHIBIT_SLEEP_MODE
// Interrupt Service Routine for timer1 Overflow
ISR(TIMER1_OVF_vect, ISR_BLOCK)
{
  ovcnt16++;				// count overflow
}

// Interrupt Service Routine for timer1 capture event (Comparator)
ISR(TIMER1_CAPT_vect, ISR_BLOCK)
{
  unfinished = 0;			// clear unfinished flag
}
#endif

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// new code by K.-H. Kubbeler
// The 680 Ohm resistor (R_L_VAL) at the Lowpin will be used as current sensor
// The current with a coil will with (1 - e**(-t*R/L)), where R is
// the sum of Pin_RM , R_L_VAL , Resistance of coil and Pin_RP.
// L in the inductance of the coil.

//=================================================================
void ReadInductance(void) {
#if FLASHEND > 0x1fff

  // check if inductor and measure the inductance value
  unsigned int tmpint;
  unsigned int umax;
  unsigned int total_r;		// total resistance of current loop
  unsigned int mess_r;		// value of resistor used for current measurement
  unsigned long inductance[4];	// four inductance values for different measurements

  union t_combi{
  unsigned long dw;     // time_constant
  uint16_t w[2];
  } timeconstant;

  uint16_t per_ref1,per_ref2;	// percentage
  uint8_t LoPinR_L;	// Mask for switching R_L resistor of low pin
  uint8_t HiADC;	// Mask for switching the high pin direct to VCC
  uint8_t ii;
  uint8_t count;	// counter for the different measurements

  //uint8_t found;	// variable used for searching resistors 
  #define found 0

  uint8_t cnt_diff;     // resistance dependent offset
  uint8_t LowPin;	// number of pin with low voltage
  uint8_t HighPin;	// number of pin with high voltage 
  int8_t ukorr;		// correction of comparator voltage
  uint8_t nr_pol1;	// number of successfull inductance measurement with polarity 1
  uint8_t nr_pol2;	// number of successfull inductance measurement with polarity 2

  if(PartFound != PART_RESISTOR) {
    return;	// We have found no resistor
  }

  if (ResistorsFound != 1) {
    return;	// do not search for inductance, more than 1 resistor
  }

  //for (found=0;found<ResistorsFound;found++) {
  //  if (resis[found].rx > 21000) continue;

  if (resis[found].rx > 21000) return;
  // we can check for Inductance, if resistance is below 2100 Ohm

  for (count=0; count<4; count++) {
    // Try four times (different direction and with delayed counter start)

    if (count < 2) {
      // first and second pass, direction 1
      LowPin = resis[found].ra;
      HighPin = resis[found].rb;
    } else {
      // third and fourth pass, direction 2
      LowPin = resis[found].rb;
      HighPin = resis[found].ra;
    }

    HiADC = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[HighPin]);
    LoPinR_L = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[LowPin]);	// R_L mask for HighPin R_L load

    //==================================================================================
    // Measurement of Inductance values
    R_PORT = 0;			// switch R port to GND
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch ADC-Port to GND

    if ((resis[found].rx < 240) && ((count & 0x01) == 0)) {
      // we can use PinR_L for measurement
      mess_r = RR680MI - R_L_VAL;			// use only pin output resistance
      ADC_DDR = HiADC | (1<<LowPin) | TXD_MSK;		// switch HiADC and Low Pin to GND, 
    } else {
      R_DDR = LoPinR_L;   		// switch R_L resistor port for LowPin to output (GND)
      ADC_DDR = HiADC | TXD_MSK;	// switch HiADC Pin to GND 
      mess_r = RR680MI;			// use 680 Ohm and PinR_L for current measurement
    }

    // Look, if we can detect any current
    for (ii=0;ii<20;ii++) {
      // wait for current is near zero
      umax = W10msReadADC(LowPin);
      total_r =  ReadADC(HighPin);
      if ((umax < 2) && (total_r < 2)) break;	// low current detected
    }

    // setup Analog Comparator
    ADC_COMP_CONTROL = (1<<ACME);			// enable Analog Comparator Multiplexer
    ACSR =  (1<<ACBG) | (1<<ACI)  | (1<<ACIC);		// enable, 1.3V, no Interrupt, Connect to Timer1 
    ADMUX = (1<<REFS0) | LowPin;			// switch Mux to Low-Pin
    ADCSRA = (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; 		// disable ADC
   
    // setup Counter1
    timeconstant.w[1] = 0;	// set ov counter to 0
    TCCR1A = 0;			// set Counter1 to normal Mode
    TCNT1 = 0;			// set Counter to 0
    TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<ICF1) | (1<<OCF1B) | (1<<OCF1A) | (1<<TOV1);	// reset TIFR or TIFR1
    HiADC |= TXD_VAL;
    wait200us();		// wait for bandgap to start up

    if ((count & 0x01) == 0 ) {
      // first start counter, then start current
      TCCR1B =  (1<<ICNC1) | (0<<ICES1) | (1<<CS10);	// start counter 1MHz or 8MHz
      ADC_PORT = HiADC;					// switch ADC-Port to VCC
    } else {
      // first start current, then start counter with delay
      // parasitic capacity of coil can cause high current at the beginning
      ADC_PORT = HiADC;		// switch ADC-Port to VCC

      #if F_CPU >= 8000000UL
        wait3us();		// ignore current peak from capacity
      #else
        wdt_reset();		// delay
        wdt_reset();		// delay
      #endif

      TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<ICF1);			// Reset Input Capture
      TCCR1B =  (1<<ICNC1) | (0<<ICES1) | (1<<CS10);	// start counter 1MHz or 8MHz
    }
      
    //******************************
    while(1) {
      // Wait, until  Input Capture is set
      ii = TI1_INT_FLAGS;		// read Timer flags

      if (ii & (1<<ICF1))  {
        break;
      }

      if((ii & (1<<TOV1))) {		// counter overflow, 65.536 ms @ 1MHz, 8.192ms @ 8MHz
        TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<TOV1);	// Reset OV Flag
        wdt_reset();
        timeconstant.w[1]++;		// count one OV

        if(timeconstant.w[1] == (F_CPU/100000UL)) {
          break; 			// Timeout for Charging, above 0.13 s
        }
      }
    }

    TCCR1B = (0<<ICNC1) | (0<<ICES1) | (0<<CS10);  	// stop counter
    TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<ICF1);				// Reset Input Capture
    timeconstant.w[0] = ICR1;		// get previous Input Capture Counter flag

    // check actual counter, if an additional overflow must be added
    if((TCNT1 > timeconstant.w[0]) && (ii & (1<<TOV1))) {
      // this OV was not counted, but was before the Input Capture
      TI1_INT_FLAGS = (1<<TOV1);		// Reset OV Flag
      timeconstant.w[1]++;			// count one additional OV
    }

    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;					// switch ADC-Port to GND
    ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; 	// enable ADC

    for (ii=0;ii<20;ii++) {
      // wait for current is near zero
      umax = W10msReadADC(LowPin);
      total_r =  ReadADC(HighPin);

      if ((umax < 2) && (total_r < 2)) break;	// low current detected
    }

    #define CNT_ZERO_42 6
    #define CNT_ZERO_720 7

    //#if F_CPU == 16000000UL
    //  #undef CNT_ZERO_42
    //  #undef CNT_ZERO_720
    //  #define CNT_ZERO_42 7
    //  #define CNT_ZERO_720 10
    //#endif

    total_r = (mess_r + resis[found].rx + RRpinMI);

    //cnt_diff = 0;
    //if (total_r > 7000) cnt_diff = 1;
    //if (total_r > 14000) cnt_diff = 2;

    cnt_diff = total_r / ((14000UL * 8) / (F_CPU/1000000UL));
    // Voltage of comparator in % of umax

    #ifdef AUTO_CAL
      tmpint = (ref_mv + (int16_t)eeprom_read_word((uint16_t *)(&ref_offset))) ;
    #else
      tmpint = (ref_mv + REF_C_KORR);
    #endif

    if (mess_r < R_L_VAL) {
      // measurement without 680 Ohm
      cnt_diff = CNT_ZERO_42;

      if (timeconstant.dw < 225) {
        ukorr = (timeconstant.w[0] / 5) - 20;
      } else {
        ukorr = 25;
      }

      tmpint -= (((REF_L_KORR * 10) / 10) + ukorr);
    } else {
      // measurement with 680 Ohm resistor
      // if 680 Ohm resistor is used, use REF_L_KORR for correction
      cnt_diff += CNT_ZERO_720;
      tmpint += REF_L_KORR;
    }

    if (timeconstant.dw > cnt_diff) timeconstant.dw -= cnt_diff;
    else timeconstant.dw = 0;
       
    if ((count&0x01) == 1) {
      // second pass with delayed counter start
      timeconstant.dw += (3 * (F_CPU/1000000UL))+10;
    }

    if (timeconstant.w[1] >= (F_CPU/100000UL)) timeconstant.dw = 0;  // no transition found

    if (timeconstant.dw > 10) {
      timeconstant.dw -= 1;
    }

    // compute the maximum Voltage umax with the Resistor of the coil
    umax = ((unsigned long)mess_r * (unsigned long)ADCconfig.U_AVCC) / total_r;
    per_ref1 = ((unsigned long)tmpint * 1000) / umax;
    //per_ref2 = (uint8_t)MEM2_read_byte(&LogTab[per_ref1]);	// -log(1 - per_ref1/100)
    per_ref2 = get_log(per_ref1);				// -log(1 - per_ref1/1000)

    //*********************************************************
    #if 0
      if (count == 0) {
        lcd_line3();
        DisplayValue(count,0,' ',4);
        DisplayValue(timeconstant.dw,0,'+',4);
        DisplayValue(cnt_diff,0,' ',4);
        DisplayValue(total_r,-1,'r',4);
        lcd_space();
        DisplayValue(per_ref1,-1,'%',4);
        lcd_line4();
        DisplayValue(tmpint,-3,'V',4);
        lcd_space();
        DisplayValue(umax,-3,'V',4);
        lcd_space();
        DisplayValue(per_ref2,-1,'%',4);
        wait_about4s();
        wait_about2s();
      }
    #endif

    //*********************************************************
    // lx in 0.01mH units, L = Tau * R
    per_ref1 = ((per_ref2 * (F_CPU/1000000UL)) + 5) / 10;
    inductance[count] = (timeconstant.dw * total_r ) / per_ref1;

    if (((count&0x01) == 0) && (timeconstant.dw > ((F_CPU/1000000UL)+3))) {
      // transition is found, measurement with delayed counter start is not necessary
      inductance[count+1] = inductance[count];	// set delayed measurement to same value
      count++;					// skip the delayed measurement
    }

    wdt_reset();
  }  // end for count

  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch ADC Port to GND
  wait_about20ms();

  #if 0
    if (inductance[1] > inductance[0]) {
      resis[found].lx = inductance[1];		// use value found with delayed counter start
    } else {
      resis[found].lx = inductance[0];
    }

    if (inductance[3] > inductance[2]) inductance[2] = inductance[3];		// other polarity, delayed start

    if (inductance[2] < resis[found].lx) resis[found].lx = inductance[2];	// use the other polarity

  #else
    nr_pol1 = 0;
    if (inductance[1] > inductance[0]) { nr_pol1 = 1; } 

    nr_pol2 = 2;
    if (inductance[3] > inductance[2]) { nr_pol2 = 3; } 

    if (inductance[nr_pol2] < inductance[nr_pol1]) nr_pol1 = nr_pol2;

    resis[found].lx = inductance[nr_pol1];
    resis[found].lpre = -5;					// 10 uH units

    if (((nr_pol1 & 1) == 1) || (resis[found].rx >= 240)) {
      // with 680 Ohm resistor total_r is more than 7460
      resis[found].lpre = -4;					// 100 uH units
      resis[found].lx = (resis[found].lx + 5) / 10;
    } 
  #endif

  //} // end loop for all resistors

  // switch all ports to input
  ADC_DDR =  TXD_MSK;		// switch all ADC ports to input
  R_DDR = 0;			// switch all resistor ports to input

#endif
  return;
}  // end ReadInductance()


#if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
// get_log interpolate a table with the function -log(1 - (permil/1000))
uint16_t get_log(uint16_t permil) {
// for remember:
// uint16_t LogTab[] PROGMEM = {0, 20, 41, 62, 83, 105, 128, 151, 174, 198, 223, 248, 274, 301, 329, 357, 386, 416, 446, 478, 511, 545, 580, 616, 654, 693, 734, 777, 821, 868, 916, 968, 1022, 1079, 1139, 1204, 1273, 1347, 1427, 1514, 1609, 1715, 1833, 1966, 2120, 2303, 2526 };

  #define Log_Tab_Distance 20           // displacement of table is 20 mil

  uint16_t y1, y2;			// table values
  uint16_t result;			// result of interpolation
  uint8_t tabind;			// index to table value
  uint8_t tabres;			// distance to lower table value, fraction of Log_Tab_Distance

  tabind = permil / Log_Tab_Distance;	// index to table
  tabres = permil % Log_Tab_Distance;	// fraction of table distance

  // interpolate the table of factors
  y1 = pgm_read_word(&LogTab[tabind]);		// get the lower table value
  y2 = pgm_read_word(&LogTab[tabind+1]); 	// get the higher table value

  result = ((y2 - y1) * tabres ) / Log_Tab_Distance + y1;  // interpolate
  return(result);
}
#endif

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

#define MAX_CNT 255

/* The sleep mode for ADC can be used. It is implemented for 8MHz and 16MHz operation */
/* But the ESR result is allways higher than the results with wait mode. */
/* The time of ESR measurement is higher with the sleep mode (checked with oszilloscope) */
/* The reason for the different time is unknown, the start of the next ADC measurement */
/* should be initiated before the next ADC-clock (8 us). One ADC takes 13 ADC clock + 1 clock setup. */
/* The setting to sleep mode takes 10 clock tics, the wakeup takes about 24 clock tics, but 8us are 64 clock tics. */
/* I have found no reason, why a reset of the ADC clock divider should occur during ESR measurement. */ 
//#define ADC_Sleep_Mode

//#define ESR_DEBUG

#ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
  //#define StartADCwait() ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | (1<<ADIE) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; /* enable ADC and Interrupt */
  //#define StartADCwait() set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_ADC);
  //sleep_mode()		/* Start ADC, return if ADC has finished */
  #define StartADCwait() sleep_cpu()
#else
  //#define StartADCwait() ADCSRA = (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; /* enable ADC and start */
  #define StartADCwait() ADCSRA = StartADCmsk; /* Start conversion */\
  while (ADCSRA & (1 << ADSC))  /* wait until conversion is done */
#endif

/************************************************************************/
/* Predefine the wait time for switch off the load current for big caps */
/************************************************************************/
//         wdt_reset();		// with wdt_reset the timing can be adjusted,
				// when time is too short, voltage is down before SH of ADC
				// when time is too long, capacitor will be overloaded.
				// That will cause too high voltage without current.

#ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
            // Interrupt mode, big cap
  #if F_CPU == 8000000UL
    #define DelayBigCap() wait10us();	/* 2.5 ADC clocks = 20us */ \
            wait5us();		/*  */ \
            wait2us();	/* with only 17 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
            /* delay 17us + 3 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 17.375 us @ 8 MHz */ \
            /* + 21 clock tics delay from interrupt return, +2.625us = 20.0 */	\
            wdt_reset();	/* 20.125 us  */ \
            wdt_reset()		/* 20.250 us  */
  #endif
  #if F_CPU == 16000000UL
    #define DelayBigCap() us500delay(18);	/* 2.5 ADC clocks = 20us */ \
            /* with only 18 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
            /* delay 18us 500ns + 1 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 18.5625 us */ \
            /* + 21 clock tics delay from interrupt return, +1.3125us = 19.8750 */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 19.9375 us  */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.0000 us  */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.0625 us  */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.1250 us  */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.1875 us  */ \
            wdt_reset() 	/* 20.2500 us  */ 
  #endif
#else
            // Polling mode, big cap
  #if F_CPU == 8000000UL
    #define DelayBigCap() wait10us();	/* 2.5 ADC clocks = 20us */ \
            wait5us();		/*  */ \
            wait4us();	/* pulse length 19.375 us */ 
            /* delay 19us + 3 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 19.375 us @ 8 MHz */ 
            /* + 7 clock tics delay from while loop, +0.875us  = 20.250 */ 
//            wdt_reset()	/* 20.375 us + */
  #endif
  #if F_CPU == 16000000UL
    #define DelayBigCap() delayMicroseconds(20)
//    #define DelayBigCap() us500delay(19);	/* 2.5 ADC clocks = 20us */ \
//            /* with only 18 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
//            /* delay 19us 500ns + 1 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 19.5625 us */ \
//            /* + 7 clock tics delay from "while (ADCSRA&(1<<ADSC))" loop = 20.0000 */ \
//            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.0625 us  */ \
//            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.1250 us  */ \
//            wdt_reset(); 	/* 20.1875 us  */ \
//            wdt_reset() 	/* 20.2500 us  */ 
  #endif
#endif

/**************************************************************************/
/* Predefine the wait time for switch off the load current for small caps */
/**************************************************************************/
      	// SH at 2.5 ADC clocks behind start = 5 us
#ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
            // Interrupt mode, small cap
  #if F_CPU == 8000000UL
    #define DelaySmallCap() wait2us();	/* with only 4 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
            /* delay 2us + 1 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 2.125 us @ 8 MHz */ \
            /* + 21 clock tics delay from interrupt return, +2.625us = 4.75 */ \
            wdt_reset();	/* 4.875 us   */ \
            wdt_reset();	/* 5.000 us   */ \
            wdt_reset()		/* 5.125 us   */
  #endif
  #if F_CPU == 16000000UL
    #define DelaySmallCap() us500delay(3);	/* with only 18 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
            /* delay 3us 500ns + 1 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 3.5625 us */ \
            /* + 21 clock tics delay from interrupt return, +1.3125us = 4.875 */ \
            wdt_reset();	/* 4.9375 us  */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 5.0000 us  */ \
            wdt_reset();	/* 5.0625 us  */ \
            wdt_reset()		/* 5.1250 us  */ 
  #endif
#else
            // Polling mode, small cap
  #if F_CPU == 8000000UL
    #define DelaySmallCap() wait4us();	/* with only 4 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
            /* delay 4us + 1 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 4.125 us @ 8 MHz */ \
            /* + 7 clock tics delay from while loop, +0.875us  = 5.000 */ \
            wdt_reset()		/* 5.125 us   */
  #endif
  #if F_CPU == 16000000UL
    #define DelaySmallCap() us500delay(4);	/* with only 4 us delay the voltage goes down before SH */ \
            /* delay 4us 500ns + 1 clock tics (CALL instead of RCALL) = 4.5625 us */ \
            /* + 7 clock tics delay from "while (ADCSRA&(1<<ADSC))" loop, +0.4375 = 5.0000 */ \
            wdt_reset(); 	/* 5.0625 us  */ \
            wdt_reset()		/* 5.1250 us  */ 
  #endif
#endif

//=================================================================
uint16_t GetESR(uint8_t hipin, uint8_t lopin) {
#if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
  // measure the ESR value of capacitor
  unsigned int adcv[4];		// array for 4 ADC readings
  unsigned long sumvolt[4];	// array for 3 sums of ADC readings
  unsigned long cap_val_nF;
  uint16_t esrvalue;
  uint8_t HiPinR_L;		// used to switch 680 Ohm to HighPin
  uint8_t HiADC;		// used to switch Highpin directly to GND or VCC
  uint8_t LoPinR_L;		// used to switch 680 Ohm to LowPin
  uint8_t LoADC;		// used to switch Lowpin directly to GND or VCC
  uint8_t ii,jj;		// tempory values
  uint8_t StartADCmsk;		// Bit mask to start the ADC
  uint8_t SelectLowPin,SelectHighPin;
  uint8_t big_cap;
  int8_t esr0;			// used for ESR zero correction
  big_cap = 1;

  if (PartFound == PART_CAPACITOR) {
    ii = cap.cpre_max;
    cap_val_nF = cap.cval_max;

    while (ii < -9) { 		// set cval to nF unit
      cap_val_nF /= 10;		// reduce value by factor ten
      ii++;			// take next decimal prefix
    }

    if (cap_val_nF < (1800/18)) return(0xffff);		// capacity lower than 1.8 uF
    //if (cap_val_nF > (1800/18)) {

    // normal ADC-speed, ADC-Clock 8us
    #ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
      StartADCmsk = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | (1<<ADIE) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV;  // enable ADC and Interrupt
      ADCSRA = StartADCmsk;		// enable ADC and Interrupt
    #else
      StartADCmsk =  (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV;  // enable and start ADC
    #endif

    //} else {

    // fast ADC-speed, ADC-Clock 2us
    #ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
      //StartADCmsk = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | (1<<ADIE) | FAST_CLOCK_DIV;  // enable ADC and Interrupt
      //ADCSRA = StartADCmsk;		// enable ADC and Interrupt
      //SMCR = (1 << SM0) | (1 <<SE);	// set ADC Noise Reduction and Sleep Enable
    #else
      //StartADCmsk =  (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | FAST_CLOCK_DIV;  // enable and start ADC
    #endif

    //big_cap = 0;
    //}
  }

  LoADC = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[lopin]) | TXD_MSK;
  HiADC = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[hipin]) | TXD_MSK;
  LoPinR_L = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[lopin]);		// R_L mask for LowPin R_L load
  HiPinR_L = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[hipin]);		// R_L mask for HighPin R_L load

  #if PROCESSOR_TYP == 1280
    // ATmega640/1280/2560 1.1V Reference with REFS0=0
    SelectLowPin = (lopin | (1<<REFS1) | (0<<REFS0));	// switch ADC to LowPin, Internal Ref. 
    SelectHighPin = (hipin | (1<<REFS1) | (0<<REFS0));	// switch ADC to HighPin, Internal Ref. 
  #else
    SelectLowPin = (lopin | (1<<REFS1) | (1<<REFS0));	// switch ADC to LowPin, Internal Ref. 
    SelectHighPin = (hipin | (1<<REFS1) | (1<<REFS0));	// switch ADC to HighPin, Internal Ref. 
  #endif

  // Measurement of ESR of capacitors AC Mode
  sumvolt[0] = 1;		// set sum of LowPin voltage to 1 to prevent divide by zero
  sumvolt[2] = 1;		// clear sum of HighPin voltage with current
                                // offset is about (x*10*200)/34000 in 0.01 Ohm units
  sumvolt[1] = 0;		// clear sum of HighPin voltage without current
  sumvolt[3] = 0;		// clear sum of HighPin voltage without current
  EntladePins();		// discharge capacitor
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch ADC-Port to GND
  ADMUX = SelectLowPin;		// set Mux input and Voltage Reference to internal 1.1V

  #ifdef NO_AREF_CAP
    wait100us();		// time for voltage stabilization
  #else
    wait_about10ms();		// time for voltage stabilization with 100nF
  #endif

  // start voltage must be negativ
  ADC_DDR = HiADC;			// switch High Pin to GND
  R_PORT = LoPinR_L;			// switch R-Port to VCC
  R_DDR = LoPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for HighPin to output (VCC)
  wait10us();
  wait2us();
  R_DDR = 0;				// switch off current
  R_PORT = 0;
  StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep

  // Measurement frequency is given by sum of ADC-Reads < 680 Hz for normal ADC speed.
  // For fast ADC mode the frequency is below 2720 Hz (used for capacity value below 3.6 uF).
  // ADC Sample and Hold (SH) is done 1.5 ADC clock number after real start of conversion.
  // Real ADC-conversion is started with the next ADC-Clock (125kHz) after setting the ADSC bit.

  for(ii=0;ii<MAX_CNT;ii++) {
    ADC_DDR = LoADC;			// switch Low-Pin to output (GND)
    R_PORT = LoPinR_L;			// switch R-Port to VCC
    R_DDR = LoPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for LowPin to output (VCC)
    ADMUX = SelectLowPin;
    StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep
    StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep
    adcv[0] = ADCW;			// Voltage LowPin with current
    ADMUX = SelectHighPin;

    //if (big_cap != 0) {

    StartADCwait();			// ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | (1<<ADIE) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV;	
    ADCSRA = (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; // enable ADC and start with ADSC
    wait4us();
    R_PORT = HiPinR_L;			// switch R-Port to VCC
    R_DDR = HiPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for HighPin to output (VCC)
    DelayBigCap();			// wait predefined time

    //} else {
    //  StartADCwait();			// ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | (1<<ADIE) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV;	
    //  R_PORT = HiPinR_L;		// switch R-Port to VCC
    //  R_DDR = HiPinR_L;		// switch R_L port for HighPin to output (VCC)
    //  ADCSRA = (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | FAST_CLOCK_DIV;  // enable ADC and start with ADSC
    //                   		// SH at 2.5 ADC clocks behind start = 5 us
    //  DelaySmallCap(); 		// wait predefined time
    //}

    R_DDR = 0;				// switch current off,  SH is 1.5 ADC clock behind real start
    R_PORT = 0;
    while (ADCSRA&(1<<ADSC));		// wait for conversion finished
    adcv[1] = ADCW;			// Voltage HighPin with current

    #ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
      ADCSRA = StartADCmsk;		// enable ADC and Interrupt
    #endif

    wdt_reset();

    // ******** Reverse direction, connect High side with GND ********
    ADC_DDR = HiADC;			// switch High Pin to GND
    R_PORT = HiPinR_L;			// switch R-Port to VCC
    R_DDR = HiPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for HighPin to output (VCC)
    wdt_reset();
    ADMUX = SelectHighPin;
    StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep
    StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep
    adcv[2] = ADCW;			// Voltage HighPin with current
    ADMUX = SelectLowPin;

    //if (big_cap != 0) {

    StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep
    ADCSRA = (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | AUTO_CLOCK_DIV; // enable ADC and start with ADSC
    wait4us();
    R_PORT = LoPinR_L;
    R_DDR = LoPinR_L;			// switch LowPin with 680 Ohm to VCC
    DelayBigCap();			// wait predefined time

    //} else {
    //  StartADCwait();			// set ADCSRA Interrupt Mode, sleep
    //  R_PORT = LoPinR_L;
    //  R_DDR = LoPinR_L;		// switch LowPin with 680 Ohm to VCC
    //  ADCSRA = (1<<ADSC) | (1<<ADEN) | (1<<ADIF) | FAST_CLOCK_DIV;  // enable ADC and start with ADSC
    //                     		// 2.5 ADC clocks = 5 us
    //   DelaySmallCap();  		// wait predefined time
    //}

    R_DDR = 0;				// switch current off
    R_PORT = 0;

    while (ADCSRA&(1<<ADSC));		// wait for conversion finished
    adcv[3] = ADCW;			// Voltage LowPin with current

    #ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
      ADCSRA = StartADCmsk;		// enable ADC and Interrupt
    #endif

    sumvolt[0] += adcv[0];		// add sum of both LowPin voltages with current
    sumvolt[1] += adcv[1];		// add  HighPin voltages with current
    sumvolt[2] += adcv[2];		// add  LowPin voltages with current
    sumvolt[3] += adcv[3];		// add  HighPin voltages with current
  } // end for

  sumvolt[0] += sumvolt[2];

  #ifdef ESR_DEBUG
    lcd_testpin(hipin);
    lcd_testpin(lopin);
    lcd_data(' ');
    DisplayValue(sumvolt[0],0,'L',4);	// LowPin 1
    lcd_line3();
    DisplayValue(sumvolt[1],0,'h',4);	// HighPin 1
    lcd_data(' ');
    DisplayValue(sumvolt[3],0,'H',4);	// LowPin 2
    lcd_line4();
  #endif

  if ((sumvolt[1] + sumvolt[3]) > sumvolt[0]) {
    sumvolt[2] = (sumvolt[1] + sumvolt[3]) - sumvolt[0];	// difference HighPin - LowPin Voltage with current
  } else {
    sumvolt[2] = 0;
  }

  if (PartFound == PART_CAPACITOR) {
    sumvolt[2] -= (1745098UL*MAX_CNT) / (cap_val_nF * (cap_val_nF + 19));
  }

  #ifdef ESR_DEBUG
    DisplayValue(sumvolt[2],0,'d',4);	// HighPin - LowPin
    lcd_data(' ');
  #endif

  esrvalue = (sumvolt[2] * 10 * (unsigned long)RRpinMI) / (sumvolt[0]+sumvolt[2]);
  esrvalue += esrvalue / 14;					// esrvalue + 7%
  esr0 = (int8_t)pgm_read_byte(&EE_ESR_ZEROtab[hipin+lopin]);

  if (esrvalue > esr0) {
    esrvalue -= esr0;
  } else {
    esrvalue = 0;
  }

  #ifdef ADC_Sleep_Mode
    SMCR = (0 << SM0) | (0 << SE);	// clear ADC Noise Reduction and Sleep Enable
  #endif

  return (esrvalue);
#else
  return (0);
#endif
}

void us500delay(unsigned int us)  // = delayMicroseconds(us) + 500ns
{
#if F_CPU >= 20000000L
  __asm__ __volatile__ (
    "nop" "\n\t"
    "nop");              // just waiting 2 cycles
  if (--us == 0) return;
  us = (us<<2) + us;     // x5 us

#elif F_CPU >= 16000000L
  if (--us == 0) return;
  us <<= 2;
#else
  if (--us == 0) return;
  if (--us == 0) return;
  us <<= 1;
#endif
  __asm__ __volatile__ (
    "1: sbiw %0,1" "\n\t"            // 2 cycles
    "brne 1b" : "=w" (us) : "0" (us) // 2 cycles
  );
}

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// new code by K.-H. Kubbeler
// ca   = Pin number (0-2) of the LowPin
// cb   = Pin number (0-2) of the HighPin

//=================================================================
void GetVloss() {
#if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
  // measure voltage drop after load pulse
  unsigned int tmpint;
  unsigned int adcv[4];

  union t_combi{
  unsigned long dw;     // capacity value  in 100nF units
  uint16_t w[2];
  } lval;

  uint8_t ii;
  uint8_t HiPinR_L;
  uint8_t LoADC;

  if (cap.v_loss > 0) return;		// Voltage loss is already known

  LoADC = pgm_read_byte(&PinADCtab[cap.ca]) | TXD_MSK;
  HiPinR_L = pgm_read_byte(&PinRLtab[cap.cb]);		// R_L mask for HighPin R_L load

  EntladePins();			// discharge capacitor
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;			// switch ADC-Port to GND
  R_PORT = 0;				// switch R-Port to GND
  ADC_DDR = LoADC;			// switch Low-Pin to output (GND)
  R_DDR = HiPinR_L;			// switch R_L port for HighPin to output (GND)
  adcv[0] = ReadADC(cap.cb);		// voltage before any load 

  // ******** should adcv[0] be measured without current???
  if (cap.cpre_max > -9) return;	// too much capacity

  lval.dw = cap.cval_max;
  //for (ii=cap.cpre_max+12;ii<5;ii++) {
  for (ii=cap.cpre_max+12;ii<4;ii++) {
    lval.dw = (lval.dw + 5) / 10;
  }

  //if ((lval.dw == 0) || (lval.dw > 500)) {
  if ((lval.dw == 0) || (lval.dw > 5000)) {
    // capacity more than 50uF, Voltage loss is already measured
    return;
  }

  R_PORT = HiPinR_L;  // R_L to 1 (VCC) 
  R_DDR = HiPinR_L;   // switch Pin to output, across R to GND or VCC

  for (tmpint=0; tmpint<lval.w[0]; tmpint+=2) {
    //wait50us();		// wait exactly 50us
    wait5us();			// wait exactly 5us
  }

  R_DDR = 0;			// switch back to input
  R_PORT = 0;			// no Pull up
  //wait10us();			// wait a little time
  wdt_reset();

  // read voltage without current
  ADCconfig.Samples = 5;	// set ADC to only 5 samples
  adcv[2] = ReadADC(cap.cb);
  if (adcv[2] > adcv[0]) {
    adcv[2] -= adcv[0];		// difference to beginning voltage
  } else {
    adcv[2] = 0;		// voltage is lower or same as beginning voltage
  }

  // wait 2x the time which was required for loading
  for (tmpint=0; tmpint<lval.w[0]; tmpint++) {
    //wait50us();
    wait5us();
  }

  adcv[3] = ReadADC(cap.cb);		// read voltage again, is discharged only a little bit ?
  ADCconfig.Samples = ANZ_MESS;		// set ADC back to configured No. of samples
  wdt_reset();

  if (adcv[3] > adcv[0]) {
    adcv[3] -= adcv[0];			// difference to beginning voltage
  } else {
    adcv[3] = 0;			// voltage is lower or same as beginning voltage
  }

  if (adcv[2] > adcv[3]) {
    // build difference to load voltage
    adcv[1] = adcv[2] - adcv[3];	// lost voltage during load time wait
  } else {
    adcv[1] = 0;			// no lost voltage
  }

  // compute voltage drop as part from loaded voltage
  if (adcv[1] > 0) {
    // there is any voltage drop (adcv[1]) !
    // adcv[2] is the loaded voltage.
    cap.v_loss = (unsigned long)(adcv[1] * 500UL) / adcv[2];
  }

  #if 0
    lcd_line3();
    DisplayValue(adcv[2],0,' ',4);
    DisplayValue(adcv[1],0,' ',4);
    lcd_line4();
    DisplayValue(lval.w[0],0,'x',4);
  #endif

  // discharge capacitor again
  EntladePins();		// discharge capacitors
  // ready
  // switch all ports to input

  ADC_DDR =  TXD_MSK;		// switch all ADC ports to input
  ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;		// switch all ADC outputs to GND, no pull up
  R_DDR = 0;			// switch all resistor ports to input
  R_PORT = 0; 			// switch all resistor outputs to GND, no pull up

#endif
  return;
}  // end GetVloss()

/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

void Calibrate_UR(void) {
  // get reference voltage, calibrate VCC with external 2.5V and
  // get the port output resistance

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    uint16_t sum_rm;	// sum of 3 Pin voltages with 680 Ohm load
    uint16_t sum_rp;	// sum of 3 Pin voltages with 680 Ohm load
    uint16_t u680;	// 3 * (Voltage at 680 Ohm)
  #endif

  //--------------------------------------------
  ADCconfig.U_AVCC = U_VCC;     // set initial VCC Voltage
  ADCconfig.Samples = 190;	// set number of ADC reads near to maximum

  #if FLASHEND > 0x1fff
    ADC_PORT = TXD_VAL;                 // switch to 0V
    ADC_DDR = (1<<TPREF) | TXD_MSK;     // switch pin with 2.5V reference to GND
    wait1ms();
    ADC_DDR =  TXD_MSK;   		// switch pin with reference back to input
    trans.uBE[1] = W5msReadADC(TPREF); 	// read voltage of 2.5V precision reference

    if ((trans.uBE[1] > 2250) && (trans.uBE[1] < 2750)) {
      // precision voltage reference connected, update U_AVCC
      WithReference = 1;
      ADCconfig.U_AVCC = (unsigned long)((unsigned long)ADCconfig.U_AVCC * 2495) / trans.uBE[1];
    }
  #endif

  #ifdef WITH_AUTO_REF
    (void) ReadADC(MUX_INT_REF);	// read reference voltage 
    ref_mv = W5msReadADC(MUX_INT_REF);	// read reference voltage 
    RefVoltage();			// compute RHmultip = f(reference voltage)
  #else
    ref_mv = DEFAULT_BAND_GAP;    	// set to default Reference Voltage
  #endif
 
  ADCconfig.U_Bandgap = ADC_internal_reference; // set internal reference voltage for ADC

  //--------------------------------------------

  #ifdef AUTO_CAL
    // measurement of internal resistance of the ADC port outputs switched to GND
    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP1 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin  1 to output 0V
    R_PORT = 1<<(TP1*2);		// R_L-PORT 1 to VCC
    R_DDR = 1<<(TP1*2);			// Pin 1 to output and over R_L to VCC
    sum_rm = W5msReadADC(TP1);

    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP2 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin 2 to output 0V
    R_PORT =  1<<(TP2*2);		// R_L-PORT 2 to VCC
    R_DDR = 1<<(TP2*2);			// Pin 2 to output and over R_L to VCC
    sum_rm += W5msReadADC(TP2);

    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP3 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin 3 to output 0V
    R_PORT =  1<<(TP3*2);		// R_L-PORT 3 to VCC
    R_DDR = 1<<(TP3*2);			// Pin 3 to output and over R_L to VCC
    sum_rm += W5msReadADC(TP3);		// add all three values

    // measurement of internal resistance of the ADC port output switched to VCC
    R_PORT = 0;				// R-Ports to GND
    ADC_PORT = 1<<TP1 | TXD_VAL;	// ADC-Port 1 to VCC
    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP1 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin  1 to output 0V
    R_DDR = 1<<(TP1*2);			// Pin 1 to output and over R_L to GND
    sum_rp = ADCconfig.U_AVCC - W5msReadADC(TP1);
      
    ADC_PORT = 1<<TP2 | TXD_VAL;	// ADC-Port 2 to VCC
    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP2 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin  2 to output 0V
    R_DDR = 1<<(TP2*2);			// Pin 2 to output and over R_L to GND
    sum_rp += ADCconfig.U_AVCC - W5msReadADC(TP2);

    ADC_PORT = 1<<TP3 | TXD_VAL;	// ADC-Port 3 to VCC
    ADC_DDR = 1<<TP3 | TXD_MSK;		// ADC-Pin  3 to output 0V
    R_DDR = 1<<(TP3*2);			// Pin 3 to output and over R_L to GND
    sum_rp += ADCconfig.U_AVCC - W5msReadADC(TP3);

    u680 = ((ADCconfig.U_AVCC * 3) - sum_rm - sum_rp);	// three times the voltage at the 680 Ohm
    pin_rmi = (unsigned long)((unsigned long)sum_rm * (unsigned long)R_L_VAL) / (unsigned long)u680;
    //adcmv[2] = pin_rm;	// for last output in row 2
    pin_rpl = (unsigned long)((unsigned long)sum_rp * (unsigned long)R_L_VAL) / (unsigned long)u680;
    resis680pl = pin_rpl + R_L_VAL;
    resis680mi = pin_rmi + R_L_VAL;
  #endif

  ADCconfig.Samples = ANZ_MESS; 	// set to configured number of ADC samples
} 
 
/* -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- -=- */

// Interfacing a HD44780 compatible LCD with 4-Bit-Interface mode

#ifdef STRIP_GRID_BOARD
  #warning "strip-grid-board layout selected!"
#endif

void lcd_set_cursor(uint8_t row, uint8_t col)
{
  #ifdef LCD1602
    int row_offsets[] = { 0x00, 0x40, 0x14, 0x54 };
    if ( row >= 2 ) {
      row = 1;
    }
    lcd.command(CMD_SetDDRAMAddress | (col + row_offsets[row]));
  #endif

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd.setCursor(6*col, 10*row);
  #endif

  uart_newline();
}

void lcd_string(char *data) {
  while(*data) {
    lcd_data(*data);
    data++;
  }
}

void lcd_pgm_string(const unsigned char *data) {
  unsigned char cc;
  while(1) {
    cc = pgm_read_byte(data);
    if((cc == 0) || (cc == 128)) return;
    lcd_data(cc);
    data++;
  }
}

void lcd_pgm_custom_char(uint8_t location, const unsigned char *chardata) {	
  #ifdef LCD1602
    location &= 0x7;
    lcd.command(CMD_SetCGRAMAddress | (location << 3));
    for(uint8_t i=0;i<8;i++) {
      lcd.write(pgm_read_byte(chardata));
      chardata++;
    }
  #endif
}

// sends numeric character (Pin Number) to the LCD 
// from binary 0 we send ASCII 1
void lcd_testpin(unsigned char temp) {
  lcd_data(temp + '1');
}

// send space character to LCD
void lcd_space(void) {
  lcd_data(' ');
}

void lcd_fix_string(const unsigned char *data) {
  unsigned char cc;
  while(1) {
    cc = MEM_read_byte(data);
    if((cc == 0) || (cc == 128)) return;
    lcd_data(cc);
    data++;
  }
}

// sends data byte to the LCD 
void lcd_data(unsigned char temp1) {
  #ifdef LCD1602
    lcd.write(temp1);
  #endif

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd.write(temp1);
  #endif

  switch(temp1) {
    case LCD_CHAR_DIODE1: {
      uart_putc('>'); uart_putc('|'); break;
    }
    case LCD_CHAR_DIODE2: {
      uart_putc('|'); uart_putc('<'); break;
    }
    case LCD_CHAR_CAP: {
      uart_putc('|'); uart_putc('|'); break;
    }
    case LCD_CHAR_RESIS1:
    case LCD_CHAR_RESIS2: {
      uart_putc('R'); break;
    }
    case LCD_CHAR_U: {		// micro
      uart_putc('u');		// ASCII u
      break;
    }
    case LCD_CHAR_OMEGA: {	// Omega
      uart_putc('o');           // "ohm"
      uart_putc('h');
      uart_putc('m'); break;
    }
    default: {
      uart_putc(temp1);
    }
  }
}

void lcd_clear(void) {
  #ifdef LCD1602
    lcd.clear();
  #endif

  #ifdef NOK5110
    lcd.clearDisplay();
  #endif

  uart_newline();
}

void uart_putc(uint8_t data) {
  Serial.write(data);
  delay(2);
}
dgeka
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Можно тогда в.л genia.flora@gmail.commm
:-) две mm лишние спасибки заранее

Ivan_Kornege
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Кинул. Лови.

karl2233
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Ivan_Kornege, молодец!

можно спаять аккуратненький такой кубик.

вопрос -  а в скетче нельзя(сложно?) добавить графику? а то такой экран и только знаки...

arduinec
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karl2233 пишет:

вопрос -  а в скетче нельзя(сложно?) добавить графику? а то такой экран и только знаки...

Теоретически добавить можно, но для этого нужно "нарисовать" графические символы для всех элементов и добавить в скетч процедуры для их отображения. Если есть желание, то можете это сделать.

В новых версиях кода у разработчиков графические символы уже сделаны, но рассчитаны они на графические дисплеи большего размера. Как я уже писал в посте 43 данной темы, более свежий код в скетч я уже преобразовал, но он пока не хочет работать.

karl2233
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понял, спасибо.

желание есть, но понимания как это сделать - нет :( это слишком сложно для меня.

 

ronnie
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[Quote = Mining]

[Quote = crossovsky] Mining, the instrument has a menu. You can even put the 2 button, or use a single button (short / long press), or encoder. I felt so comfortable. [/ Quote]

You mean this circuit?

[/ Quote] hey Good Day..please i want this project can you please private me a message..I am a filipino and trying to built this one thanks.

karl2233
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ronnie, это два разных проекта, так что вопрос надо задать на сайте vrtp.ru

тут обсуждается иное решение.

Ivan_Kornege
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arduinec пишет:

karl2233 пишет:

вопрос -  а в скетче нельзя(сложно?) добавить графику? а то такой экран и только знаки...

Теоретически добавить можно, но для этого нужно "нарисовать" графические символы для всех элементов и добавить в скетч процедуры для их отображения. Если есть желание, то можете это сделать.

В новых версиях кода у разработчиков графические символы уже сделаны, но рассчитаны они на графические дисплеи большего размера. Как я уже писал в посте 43 данной темы, более свежий код в скетч я уже преобразовал, но он пока не хочет работать.

с графткой это будет круть. Ждёмссс ))

karl2233
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круть - не то слово! ведь можно будет "вгрузить" в более мощную Атмегу, подселив туда ещё кого-нить :)

буде супер-пупер-мега девайс.

так что arduinec великое дело зачал :)

 

arduinec
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Ivan_Kornege пишет:

с графткой это будет круть

Особой крути нет: в посте 12 приведены сравнительные фотографии. Графический дисплей разумеется красиво рисует транзисторы, но цифровая и текстовая информация остаётся такой же.

Ivan_Kornege
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arduinec пишет:

Ivan_Kornege пишет:

с графткой это будет круть

Особой крути нет: в посте 12 приведены сравнительные фотографии. Графический дисплей разумеется красиво рисует транзисторы, но цифровая и текстовая информация остаётся такой же.

Вот эта и есть ключевая фраза -"Графический дисплей разумеется красиво рисует транзисторы..." красота спасёт МИР...

Evgeniy87
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Может кто скинуть схему проекта в layout?

mtoliki
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arduinec пишет:

- добавлен к кнопке подтягивающий резистор к питанию на 100 кОм, так как в коде может применяться команда, отключающая внутреннюю подтяжку к питанию всех пинов.

Можете поподробнее объяснить как он подключен?

arduinec пишет:

 

Дисплей подключается к пинам D2-D7, пины D0 и D1 свободны для Serial port, пины A4 и A5 свободны для I2C.

Serial port, а зачем он собственно нужен? Я к тому что возможно ли переделка скетча с заменой d13 порта - тогда и резистор выпаивать не надо?

arduinec
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mtoliki пишет:

arduinec пишет:
- добавлен к кнопке подтягивающий резистор к питанию на 100 кОм, так как в коде может применяться команда, отключающая внутреннюю подтяжку к питанию всех пинов.

Можете поподробнее объяснить как он подключен?

http://arduino.ru/tutorials/button
http://arduino.ru/forum/programmirovanie/rabota-s-knopkami-v-pomoshch-no...
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Подтягивающий_резистор
 

mtoliki пишет:

arduinec пишет:
Дисплей подключается к пинам D2-D7, пины D0 и D1 свободны для Serial port, пины A4 и A5 свободны для I2C.

Serial port, а зачем он собственно нужен? Я к тому что возможно ли переделка скетча с заменой d13 порта - тогда и резистор выпаивать не надо?

Serial port позволяет выводить результаты на компьютер (через Serial Monitor), при этом Транзистор тестер может обходиться без внешних дисплеев.

Если бы порт D13 легко заменялся бы в коде разработчиков, то такая замена была бы сделана. Если ваш Arduino сможет правильно работать с подключенным светодиодом на 13 пине, то резистор можно не выпаивать.

mtoliki
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Ну собственно идея: Сделать платку с мониторчиком на И2Ц, измерительной обвязкой и питанием (пока не решил что буду использовать, возможно ДС-ДС конвертор). И при необходимости тестера заливаю скетч на ардуино НАНО и вставляю в плату. Собственно в сериале нет необходимости. И мне казалось вы всю прошивку разобрали.

А выпаивать светик ( или резистор) чтот не хочется совсем :( 

mtoliki
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Иван, вы помимо экрана 5110 какой еще подрубали или какой совместим?

Ivan_Kornege
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mtoliki пишет:

Иван, вы помимо экрана 5110 какой еще подрубали или какой совместим?

Я только 5110 подрубил. В скетче можно разные подключить, надо только раскоментировать нужный дисплей. В посте#18 arduinec фсЁ написал.

 

Sanyaba
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Давно хотелось попробовать, собрал на Pro Mini + 1602 на I2C, скетч со второго поста, заработало сразу но обнаружил что нет "самопроверки" хотя константу WITH_SELFTEST в коде раскомментировал, не могли бы подсказать может я чего недопонял...

 

angersos
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1602 на I2C подключаеться нормально?

Sanyaba
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с первого раза по I2C получилось

//#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
//LiquidCrystal lcd(7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2);  // RS,E,D4,D5,D6,D7

#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>
LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x3F, 16, 2);  // Устанавливаем дисплей по I2C

библиотека для 1602 I2C отсюда github.com/marcoschwartz/LiquidCrystal_I2C

 

Sanyaba
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и еще заметил что на электролитах часто показывает ESR=.00 неужели бывает такое?

к примеру емкость 1000х16v производителя KZG и емкость 1500х16V от Rubycon... они с материнок

Sanyaba
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в итоге вернул обрано на ардуинку выпаянные детали и заказал с али ESR-meter за 16$ в полне годный по отзывам вариант, я не отговариваю от идеи сборки руками данного незаменимого прибора но у меня калибровка не получалась и показания особенно на измерении сопративлений сильно отличались от простого мультиметра, в общем поигрался, промерял электролиты на материнках 775 сокета и оказалось что примерно 30-40% емкостей нужно менять хотя они не пухлые

при замерах ESR использовал вот такую таблицу

angersos
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Вот я тоже думаю смысл собирать, легче купить)

arduinec
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Sanyaba пишет:

Давно хотелось попробовать, собрал на Pro Mini + 1602 на I2C, скетч со второго поста, заработало сразу но обнаружил что нет "самопроверки" хотя константу WITH_SELFTEST в коде раскомментировал, не могли бы подсказать может я чего недопонял...

Это вопрос скорее к разработчикам (ссылки на них даны в нулевом посте данной темы). Наверно нужно в скетче функцию AutoCheck() ковырять, но мне это не интересно.
Я не считаю Transistor Tester абсолютно точным прибором (в том числе и сделанные в Китае), поэтому не вижу смысла в супер настройке его. Но относительная точность у него неплохая (даже без подстройки), что позволяет из нескольких экземпляров радиодеталей (транзисторов, конденсаторов и т.д.) выбрать лучший вариант.

P.S. У разработчиков сейчас есть прошивки (не скетчи) и для Arduino тоже.

arduinec
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Sanyaba пишет:

и еще заметил что на электролитах часто показывает ESR=.00 неужели бывает такое?

к примеру емкость 1000х16v производителя KZG и емкость 1500х16V от Rubycon... они с материнок

Не знаю как насчёт конденсаторов, но MOSFETы на материнки ставят хорошие.
Что касаемо ESR, то это опять вопрос к разработчикам, но проверить измерение ESR можно и без них: подключить последовательно к конденсатору резистор с небольшим сопротивлением, тогда ESR на величину резистора должно стать больше.

arduinec
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angersos пишет:

Вот я тоже думаю смысл собирать, легче купить)

У большинства устройств, обсуждаемых здесь на форуме, есть готовые аналоги, которые можно купить.

У меня же Ардуина не простаивает зря, а используется для макетирования других проектов. Когда же нужно проверить радиодетали, то она вставляется в вышепоказанную макетную плату и с заново залитым скетчем Тестера Транзисторов тестирует радиоэлементы.

Ivan_Kornege
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Sanyaba пишет:

в итоге вернул обрано на ардуинку выпаянные детали и заказал с али ESR-meter за 16$ в полне годный по отзывам вариант, я не отговариваю от идеи сборки руками данного незаменимого прибора но у меня калибровка не получалась и показания особенно на измерении сопративлений сильно отличались от простого мультиметра, в общем поигрался, промерял электролиты на материнках 775 сокета и оказалось что примерно 30-40% емкостей нужно менять хотя они не пухлые

при замерах ESR использовал вот такую таблицу

Ох*еваю от таких как ты, верящих, что за 16 баксов в Чайне тебе продадут точный прибор.

Криво меряет,твой собранный, видимо потому что ты не подобрал одинаковые сопротивления , а впаял какие под руку попались вот и имееш результат. У меня все сопротивления с мультиметром китайским , на 0,132% различаются.

dgeka
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Но ведь емкость померял правильно!!!

savantik
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Собрал данный аппарат с Двухстрочным дисплеем, сопротивление, транзисторы, дроссели, мереет более менее точно,

конденсаторы с Нанофарадами то же мериит точно, НО вот электролиты ( начинал с 100мкф и выше ) он завышает практически ровно в Два раза.  ( Скетч поставил tt108001.ino )

А вот прошивку от Pighixxx  я не могу откомпелировать пишет ошыбку в этой строке:

#error Invalid Parameters: Use LCD_PRINT or DEBUG_PRINT

 

arduinec
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savantik пишет:

НО вот электролиты ( начинал с 100мкф и выше ) он завышает практически ровно в Два раза.

Согласно документации от разработчиков, кондесаторы большой ёмкости тестер не успевает зарядить, поэтому их значения рассчитываются.

savantik пишет:

А вот прошивку от Pighixxx  я не могу откомпелировать пишет ошыбку в этой строке:

#error Invalid Parameters: Use LCD_PRINT or DEBUG_PRINT

Там нужно закомментировать #define LCD_PRINT или #define DEBUG_PRINT - вместе они не работают.

savantik
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Зарегистрирован: 17.08.2016

Поставил кондесатор 100nf на AREF, кондесаторы в 100 микрофарад мерить стал точно ( то есть до 100 точно ), а вот 220mkf и выше теперь стал завышать в ТРИ раза ( без конденсатора на AREF завышал в Два раза) , думаю будет интересно.

savantik
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Посмотрел скетч tt108001.ino , в нём вроде всё есть, и спящий режим, и test mode для калибровки, но у меня

и в спячку не выходит и тест моде запустить не могу, может кто знает как полностью работает этот ардуино тестер ????

arduinec
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savantik пишет:

Посмотрел скетч tt108001.ino , в нём вроде всё есть, и спящий режим, и test mode для калибровки, но у меня и в спячку не выходит и тест моде запустить не могу, может кто знает как полностью работает этот ардуино тестер ????

Ссылки на разработчиков даны в нулевом посте данной темы.
Скетч tt108001.ino получен из файлов, содержащихся в папке source архива tt108001.zip.

savantik
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arduinec пишет:

Ссылки на разработчиков даны в нулевом посте данной темы.

Скетч tt108001.ino получен из файлов, содержащихся в папке source архива tt108001.zip.

1) Каким образом получен Скетч из этих файлов ?

2) зачем в скетче собранны закоментированные функции, ну к примеру скажем функция #define WITH_SELFTEST  и другие, а так же сопутствующие их подпрограммы , ( для весу скетча ? )

3) Вы сможите раскоментировать функцию #define WITH_SELFTEST что бы не было ошибки начиная со строки

void AutoCheck(void) {

#ifdef WITH_SELFTEST

Я не очень силён в в скетчах ардуино.
arduinec
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savantik пишет:

1) Каким образом получен Скетч из этих файлов ?

2) зачем в скетче собранны закоментированные функции, ну к примеру скажем функция #define WITH_SELFTEST  и другие, а так же сопутствующие их подпрограммы , ( для весу скетча ? )

3) Вы сможите раскоментировать функцию #define WITH_SELFTEST что бы не было ошибки

1) Путём частичного объединения файлов исходника.

2) Потому что они есть в исходных файлах.

3) Ответ дан в посте 82.

savantik
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Так... я закоментировал в начале скетча функцию #define NO_AREF_CAP , теперь электролиты стали завышатся горазда меньше

к примеру 100mkf показал 128mkf,  220mkf показал 287mkf,  1000mkf показал 1300mkf  ( раньше просто в два раза завышал )

Umka
Umka аватар
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А вот подскажите уважаемые. Есть у меня вот такой конструктор http://ru.aliexpress.com/store/product/M8-transistor-tester-upgrade-version-of-M328-multipurpose-instrument-for-measuring-inductance-capacitance-ESR-table-DIY/1849261_32550331389.html , уже пару лет на шкафу валяется. Прошивка слетела, а новые не компилируются, ошибки лезут странные. А не подойдет ли этот скетч туда? Этакий реверс готового китайклона. Мега там 328Р на панельке, загрузчик вшить вообще не проблема. В код заглянул - вроде похоже на оригинал. А чего я гадаю - возьму и сделаю! И расскажу.

savantik
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Вот возмите у меня эту прошивку, на ваш клон должна подойти,  там есть прошивки на 8мГц и на 16мГц,

Прошивка на 16мГц может проверять кварцевые резонаторы до 14 мГц. ( но при этом на само устройство нужно впаять кварц на 16мГц) https://yadi.sk/d/4I7druJpuRCZ4

nik0el
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Зарегистрирован: 25.09.2016

Спасибо за ваши труды.

Удалось залить скетч только в arduino IDE версии 1.6.0, в 1.0.5 и в 1.6.12 лезли ошибки.

В целом работает.

Первая проблема была с определением емкости больших конденсаторов, на плате про мини конденсатор с AREF удалял, переменную //#define NO_AREF_CAP оставил закомментированной. Решил проблему переменной #define C_H_KORR 0, установив значение -115.

С ESR так и не разобрался, а очень хочется сделать, пробовал на емкостях 680мк,1000мк и 1800мк, везде результат .00 (выше уже об этом сообщали). В скетче есть только #define ESR_ZERO 20, может его надо крутить, возможно нулевое значение смещено, но еще не проверял.

И у меня на дисплеи nokia 5110 что-то блекло показывает, может можно контраст где-то подкрутить или у меня экземпляр такой, запитываю стабилизатором 3,3В. Пробовал без подсветки, не влияет.

Фото тестера ESR

dgeka
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Контрасность выставляется в скетче, ели не ошибаюсь по умолчанию она 60, внимательно если скетч посмотреть то будет видно  

 

nik0el
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Зарегистрирован: 25.09.2016

Спасибо, помогло. Строка 1294 - lcd.setContrast(60); Было 50.

Nokia 5110

ESR так и показывает по нулям...

arduinec
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nik0el пишет:

ESR так и показывает по нулям...

Измерение ESR проверяется просто: последовательно к конденсатору подключается небольшое сопротивление (например 1 Ом) и на это сопротивление ESR будет больше.

На новых электролитах у меня ESR тоже по нулям. Старые советские показывают ESR=5 ом и Vloss=5%. Вздутый конденсатор показал ESR=15 ом и Vloss=27%.